How could cold fusion reactors replace coal-fired steam power plants?

Graphic: copyright CO2CRC

Because the grade of heat generated [and recoverable] from the cold fusion processes [as of now] is modest in relation to furnace temperatures of conventional power plant [ which are in the range of 2500- 3500 deg.F (1400C-1900C)], it is not obvious to me how the existing furnace/ boiler plant can be efficiently utilized for the cold fusion processes.

However, if the CF energy cell is used directly to generate saturated steam at pressures in the range of 500-3000 psig. (pounds per square inch gauge) where boiling temperatures would be in the range of 470-700 deg.F (240C-370C) [respectively for the pressure range] and then, a separate CF energy cell is used to directly superheat that steam to 750 deg.F (400C) for a 500 psig. and to say 1000 deg.F (540C) for the 3000 psig. boiler, then that superheated steam [for what ever steam pressure system is used] could be routed to an existing steam turbine plant [with the return treated and de-aerated condensate returned as feed to the new CF fired boiler.

In summary, the existing fossil-fired boiler plant [including all fuel/ combustion air/ furnace/boiler/ash systems/flue gas systems, are all deactivated and preferably removed, and the new cold fusion powered boiler together with the cold fusion powered superheater would be integrated into the existing steam turbine generating plant [including the steam condensing plant and, of course, a modified control room].

This whole project would certainly drastically reduce emmissions to zero, but would be very costly, I suspect, because of labour costs of dismantling the majority of the power station.

It may be a better option to build new power station using the new CF boiler and superheater plant with a custom designed and compact steam turbine/ generator plant in a small modern compact building.

With the most appropriate and efficient small 25MW cold fusion powered station I would suggest the following :

Boiler outlet conditions : 500 psig. sat. steam [at 470 deg. F (240C)]
Superheater outlet conditions : 470 psig. steam at 750 deg. F (400C)
Steam Turbine outlet conditions [to steam condenser] : 1 psia. @ 10% wetness.

The practical steamrate for generating electrical power with this relatively simple, small and compact station is about 9 lbs/ kwhour so the total steamrate from the small boilers serving a single multi-stage steam turbine/generator system which exhausts to a steam condenser is 225,000 lbs/hour.

Scientists would decide how much steam capacity each boiler/superheater combo would have and that would determine how many units would be required to meet the total steam demand.

Note: The use of steam for electric power generation [via boiler and steam turbine as presently done] is really 20th. century technology and all forms of cold and hot fusion should seek to find DIRECT electrical generation processes that harness ion transfer in conjunction with an external excitation field.

The use of steam at high pressure as an electrolyte, may however make use of an abundant commodity that facilitates extreme process efficiency, and this applies to the pressurized CIHT unit where high pressure steam is extremely efficient as an electrical conductor [the electrolyte] permeating the catalyst fill [consisting of back to back catalyst discs] through micro gaps in the catalyst structure. Further the basis of direct electric power is when a stream of ions or electrons flowing and driven by an existing voltage potential, will interact with an external excitation field thus creating export electric power.

Addendum:

This proposed and detailed [perhaps speculative] bold upgrade to the original BLP – CIHT unit could be a blockbuster in that a compact direct energy CIHT based system, offered in a wide range of sizes and used in multi-module applications for the power generation industry, but more importantly, for the shipping industries [from private and recreational craft to commercial shipping and naval shipping including surface vessels and submarines].

This conceptual unit [or units] could be installed in the ships engine room and bypass the existing electric generating plant with out the costly removal of that plant [or in the case of nuclear powered vessels deactivate and bypass the entire systems of the existing reactor compartment].

See details on The PRESSURIZED CIHT Unit [.pdf]

THE PRESSURIZED CIHT UNIT – after the SunCell


To: Industry and Government

The following letter was sent to Blacklight Power (BLP) in the hope that the original CIHT unit [now apparently redundant because of the promise and enthusiasm for their SF-CIHT project] could be revisited with a prospect of being commercially viable as perhaps, a second alternative to their main project [with the SF-CIHT]. I hope you find the following interesting

John Varney

—————————————————————-
To Dr. Randell Mills
Dated September 3rd. 2014 -[Rev 1 dated Sept. 4th. 2014]

From John Varney

THE PRESSURIZED CIHT UNIT
Using saturated steam at 500 psig as electroyte – Generated in a small adjacent pressurized electric kettle.

The steam passes from the inlet chamber via a porous anode disc and a porous [non conductive] catalyst containment disc, through the stack of catalyst discs, to the other catalyst containment disc and then the cathode disc to the outlet chamber.
This vertical cylindrical unit with the steam inlet chamber at the top and the steam outlet chamber at the bottom will have an effective stack height of say 36 inches and a disc diameter of 12 inches.
The shell, with an internal diameter of 12.06 inches will be made of a non-conductive, non-porous material [perhaps a composite material] of suitable thickness to contain the steam pressure. The design conditions of all pressure parts shall be generous to withstand temperature excursions that may occur during the three phases of operation [ charge phase, discharge phase and idle phase ].
The complete exterior of the pressure vessel will be applied with a 4 inch layer of insulation such that little heat will be lost from the unit during operation in the charge or discharge phases.

A small, compact and simple electric steam generator or kettle [constructed of same material as pressure vessel for the CIHT unit] will provide a low feed rate of saturated steam [at a final pressure of 500 psig and derived from a distilled water feed]that will be maintained throughout all three phases of operation.
In the event of over pressure due to electrolysis in the charge phase or a temperature excursion during the discharge phase, bleeds from the top or bottom chambers will be automatically activated to re-establish the operating pressure and temperature. If some condensation is occuring within the CIHT unit then this will be handled with a steam trap serving the bottom chamber.

With regard to bleeds, [following experimentation, showing magnitude, frequency and causes of pressure/temperature excursions during the charge or discharge phases] it may be practical to initiate, on commencement of charge, a continuous micro-bleed [from the bottom chamber] and to have a slightly larger bleed to automatically cut in when serious over press/temp occurs [that can not be corrected with the micro-bleed]. The accumulative loss of steam with such a system could still be small and acceptable [energy wise] whilst enabling the unit to operate smoothely without ongoing operator interface.

Note: The unit may be mounted in a horizontal position, but care taken to drain minute condensate effectively to steam trap.

CHARGE PHASE
When the steam condition in the CIHT unit has gradually increased and is stabilized at 500 psig, the charging phase may proceed and with a 36 inch total layer of catalyst discs to be penetrated, the voltage required may be substantial [perhaps in the range of several hundred volts]. When the charging energy approaches zero, the electrolysis [charge] phase is ended and the discharge phase can begin.

DISCHARGE PHASE
Only experimentation will indicate the optimum conditions of discharge or the consistency, duration, magnitude of exported energy.
It is probable that temperature or pressure excursions will occur and will require focused attention to remedy.
One would not be surprised if the basic performance signatures of the pressurized CIHT unit were indeed found to be remarkable and encouraging.

John Varney

I trust you find the above of some interest in that it would provide a secondary option to your promising SF-CIHT unit.

Babylon The Ring City

To: The Leaders of the G20 Nations [and their ministries]
Copies to: the worlds media corporation

In order to eliminate urban sprawl and to avoid the use of personal transportation from all areas of the “Ring City“, we can, by integrating all residences, schools ,colleges, universities, hospitals, medical centers, shopping malls, fitness centers, sports fields, sports stadiums, entertainment centers, museums, galleries, into that city ring [ of some 7 miles diameter], create a magnificent city structure that is fully serviced and provides a vibrant and enriched lifestyle for everyone.

Within the city ring [with an inner diameter of 6 miles and an outer diameter of about 6.8 miles] and between the inner and outer residential ring towers, there will be a continuous belts of land escaped gardens and recreational park with a total area of about 5 sq.miles. The approximate population of the city [with each of the ring tower residences having some 80 floors and a total compliment of apartments [of various sizes] of about 1,600,000] would be about 3,000,000.

A central park [a wilderness area with many lakes, waterfalls, rapids, streams and trails for hiking and biking] with a diameter of 6 miles, would provide a further city parkland of some 28 sq. miles for the enjoyment of the residents.

The ring city would be provided with a subway system [operating 24 hours a day] running under the massive circular structure and a separate subway link serving the airport [and linking with national electric rail and bus services], that would be free for all residents so that every part of the many and varied facilities would be minutes away for any resident.

A four level visitors car and coach park [electric vehicles only] would be provided adjacent to the outer perimeter of the outer circle tower and will accommodate all daily visitors travelling by car at a reasonable daily charge. Within this car and coach park belt will be electric car rentals so that city residents may use car transport when travelling beyond the city.

A huge Farming Belt [6 miles wide] with an outer diameter of 18.7 miles, would be serviced with an access road web to enable workers from the city to travel to and from their place of work in electric buses [again at no cost to the worker].

Produce from the farm facilities [harvested year-round] would be delivered daily to the city in compact electric trucks that would [via special access lanes] reach the many fruit and vegetable stores in the many malls.

The farming would consist of open and enclosed facilities growing a wide range of fruit and vegetables using hydroponic and organic processes and would develop their product quantities to match the appetites ot the city residents.

A limited amount of industrial businesses can be located beyond the farming belt providing they have no polluting effluent.

All land and structures will be owned by the city government and will be leased to businesses and residents based on an appropriate number of years to suit clients preference but in no case for less than a two year lease.

All jobs, including city government, political and office staff [including all business executives], all professionals needed by the city together with all skilled and unskilled labor and service staff, would be awarded exclusively to city residents. Conversely all applicant residents [who are of working age and available for employment] would require a job offer [and acceptance] prior to securing an appropriate residence in the city.

All residences [in high-rise towers] will be leased on two to five year terms depending on preference of renter and monthly rent will include power, heating, air conditioning, cable [tv and internet] and use of city transit systems for all persons in household. All furniture and fittings would come complete with each residence [there would be no disruptive removal operations] however all bed mattresses and all upholstery would be renewed and apartment thoroughly and professionally cleaned and repaired prior to new tenants moving in.

Facilities for education will be first class and students attending college or university may take the financial advantage of living in their home [in the city ring towers]. Special student residences will be available at reasonable cost for those unable or not wishing to live at their family home. Students from outside the city [whilst attending college or university] may rent a student residence.

Electrical Power for the city will be provided from two sources each of which is clean [non-combustion] energy. The first source will be from wind turbines and solar panel arrays [all mounted on the ring tower roofs] with sufficient capacity to provide up to 30% of city demand [at suitable wind and light conditions] and an average year round contribution of 20%. The second source of electric power will be from a combination of cold and hot fusion direct electrical conversion processes and this plant will be housed in below ground facilities adjacent to the inner perimeter of the inner circle tower. This arrangement will thus avoid any power distribution grids above ground.

Water Supply [potable/drinking water] will be supplied from water treatment facilities located at adjacent lakeshore or sea coast. A suitably sized treated water duct will deliver the water to the Ring City complex [desalination plant at the coast, will be required if only sea water is available].

As water is such an essential and limited commodity it will be necessary, to distribute around the inner perimeter of the ring city, small treatment stations that re-process used water [plus all land sewers and building drains] for use other than potable water. The economy of water together with high density of residences will result in consumption per person being a minute fraction of that in existing city sprawl.

Sewage from the city complex will be delivered [underground] to the perimeter of the inner circle tower where pumping stations will deliver it to the sewage treatment plant located adjacent to lakeshore or sea coast.

The man-made lakes in central park are arranged such that the inner lakes are about 200 ft higher than city ground level and the outer [lower] lakes are about 20 ft. higher than city ground level such that water may cascade down to the lower lakes via ,water-falls. rapids and streams and then water returned via pumping stations [with make-up water as necessary] to the upper lakes.

A POSITIVE PROGRESSION OF A SOCIAL COMMUNITY [avoiding the charge of being a utopia]

This ring city of Babylon represents an experiment in a democratic modern and environmentally friendly community that explores urgent and necessary adjustments in lifestyle, fitness, quality of health and quality of life, by integrating all elements of the community into a tolerant and inclusive society where all businesses and individuals pay appropriate taxes with the introduction of a simple tax code where tax avoidance is difficult and easily detected and where fraud will be severely punished with heavy financial penalties and ejection of that individual or business, from the community.

The gap between minimum wage and maximum allowed income [as salary] will be reduced to a ratio of 50 to 1. Any corporate executive or other employee cannot receive any other benefit from business other than salary which specifically excludes company shares, bonuses or pensions. Income as dividends from held shares, or interest from savings accounts or bonds and money from inheritance are of course allowed but will be taxed at a higher rate [if gross income exceeds 50 to 1 ratio].

The following is the proposed tax code :-

Personal income tax :-
The first $20,000 [as annual minimum wage @2,000 hrs.] is tax exempt
Annual income above $20,000 and up to $1,000,000 is taxed @ 33%
Annual income exceeding $1,000,000 will be taxed @ 50%
Business Taxation :-
The gross annual income of businesses operating within the city limits, from sales and/or services to be taxed @ 15%
Rental [as annual lease payment to City for land and premises] to be 10% of gross income from sales and/or services.

Healthcare :-

In this modern city there will be a universal healthcare system funded [through taxation] and operated by city government. The following features will be prominent in this experimental system :-
-No for-profit entity will function in or be a component of this healthcare system.
-The prescription of drugs will not be the usual first response following the diagnosis .
-Where possible medically qualified personal should provide needed patient care in their home.
-If patient is seriously ill or incapacitated then patient should receive a doctor visit and diagnosis in their home and subsequently, if necessary, receive services of homecare [where possible] in preference to a stay in hospital.

The concentration of residences within a circle structure with continuous free subway transit serving the entire resident population, makes doctor visits and subsequent home care [as necessary] an obvious option.

Conclusion -There are no doubt, many other aspects of life in an integrated and modern community that represent a progression in the quality and stability in that society, however the preceding is a first attempt to address the enormous [but potentially rewarding] challenge.

Images

All Babylon_images [.pdf] (4M)

Ring City Plan
Babylon_images-2.jpg

Ring City Plan of Central Park
Babylon_images-3.jpg

Ring City Sectional Elevation
Babylon_images-4.jpg

Ring Tower Residences
Babylon_images-5.jpg

Ring Tower Residences – Four Bedroom
Babylon_images-6.jpg

Student Residence
Babylon_images-7.jpg

10-Stage Flash Desalinization
Babylon_images-8.jpg

This concept by J.Varney – dated July 5th. 2013


Related

Babylon and the New Enery Era [.pdf]

John Varney Home

Electric Car

The Electric Car
and then,
so much more to raise your hopes

An important note to the reader

This document leads in with new technologies for the electric car. Later, at the end of this document, via a clickable reference, it identifies a total scenario, in some detail, of the remarkable hot and cold fusion technologies that will be applied to power generation, marine propulsion, aircraft propulsion and space propulsion.

The transformative nature of all these [largely proven] energy technologies is that they are totally clean, safe and are free of toxic materials of construction and produce no toxic or harmful effluent – in fact they represent the end of the era of combustion [as a source of power or propulsion].

John W VarneyAfter studying Mechanical Engineering, author John W. Varney migrated to Classical Atomic & Nuclear Physics at the Naval College in England. A member of Institution of Nuclear Engineers, he has designed aircraft jet engines, nuclear submarine primary systems design, steam plant design for power generation, application of gas turbines in power generation, and general consulting for industrial projects. Born 1939 in London, England, Varney is now retired and a single grandfather who works to promote Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) fusion technology as a clean energy alternative to fossil fuels.

Who locked the garage door on our Super electric car

Is it Santa Clause or the Wicked Witch?

Surely it can’t be the oil and auto industries, because what on earth could they have against a transformation of all road vehicles to the simple, clean, efficient and lower cost electric mode ?

Surely it can’t be the reality of a sudden and total global collapse of fuel sales to road vehicles. The fine corporate executives who have the awesome responsibilities of building a better world for themselves would not dream of compromising their future if it meant abandoning the addiction to power and wealth, even as such a selfish strategy denies any benefit [of an improved environment] for people and all other species that inhabit this planet.

Such is the world today, populated by a vast majority who have the care and passion to nurture their families against all odds that reality throws at them, and a small minority whose privilege of financial success and a position of power has blinded them to the profound gifts of service and compassion for others.

Technology suppression and deception exposes the public to avoidable dangers.

Boeing’s Dream-liner problems with lithium-ion battery fires, is a grim reminder of suppression of technologies [technologies that threaten the future of fossil fuel vehicle propulsion].

GM and elements of the Military-Industrial complex became involved in ownership of the new technology of ultracapacitors for the express purpose of burying the program in the back waters of suppression so that vehicle propulsion [land, sea and air] will survive in the profitable domain of combustion engines.

Blacklight Power have developed and proven [with an energy source classified as a variant of cold fusion] a remarkable and transforming CIHT unit [Catalyst Induced Hydrino Transition] that will compete with the ultracapacitor battery when it has been scaled up for use in all road vehicles. This exciting technology is, without doubt, a target for any agency with an agenda to prolong the use of combustion engines in all road vehicles.

The following documents provide the evidence for the promising scenario [and political and industrial challenges] that will be experienced, in the emergence and global transformation from combustion to electric power for the car and all road vehicles:-

Car duel history

ELECTRIC VEHICLES – NEW BATTERY TECHNOLOGY

ANALYSIS OF LEAD ACID AND LITHIUM BATTERIES

Engine verses Electric Energy Ratings

Protocol Sedan

Protocol Sports

Email John Varney


Related

and then, so much more to raise your hopes

John Varney: Small-scale fusion is “a matter of absolute urgency”

John Varney: Small-scale fusion power is “a matter of absolute urgency”

John W VarneyJohn Varney describes an energy transition plan away from fossil fuels and towards clean, small-scale fusion and shares his designs for a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) reactor and applications that could radically transform power generation for transportation, solutions impossible with chemical energies, but mandatory for a green technological human future.

DPF is not cold fusion, but a produces power by focusing multiple streams of plasma together in super-high-temperature pulses. Fusing protons with boron nuclei in the concentrated plasma pulse point is aneutronic, a reaction producing no neutrons. Research in small-scale production of this kind was reported here in The Alternate Path to a Cleaner, Brighter Future by zed short.

Emergence from Chaos, a shining new Order
The world cries out for urgent action by governments, industry, academia and yes, the media, to focus with determination, resolve and cohesion, on refining and mass producing equipment incorporating technologies [some of which are already proven in research laboratories] that will provide vehicle propulsion [on land, sea, air and space] and power generation with compact, efficient, safe, clean and low cost units that will replace all fossil fuels and nuclear [fission] fuel within a decade.

The redundant nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants in power stations and in naval ships [both surface and submarine vessels] will be deactivated [decommissioned], dismantled, decontaminated and the fissile material placed in adequately shielded containers for temporary storage.

We can now accept the reality, that a dawn of enlightened progress, can now begin its delivery to the global village.

Various forms of controlled plasma streams, [the Hydrino plasma, LENR and LANR plasmas and the emerging technology of nuclear fusion via the Dense Plasma Focus Device] herald a transformation of global industry toward a non-polluting regime that may not only introduce direct electrical power generation from these plasmas, but also apply them [via direct injection] to turbo-machinery and to the existing furnaces of fossil fired power plant [where the fossil fuel supply systems, the ash collection systems and the flue gas treatment systems, are all deactivated and removed].

This strategy will ensure that recent and ongoing massive worldwide investment in fossil fired power plant can be relatively easily upgraded to plasma power plant [salvaging the major portions of the existing plant and speeding up the conversion down time].

All internal combustion engines presently powering aircraft, ships, yachts, trains and all road vehicles will, within the decade be replaced with alternative electric power plants that do not involve the combustion process and thus do not in any way contribute to global warming and climate change.

IMAGES ON TOMORROW’S RADAR

Varney Global Fast Ferry

Varney Supersonic Jet

Varney Freighter Space Plane

With the need to have a plan for steady growth, a cleaner environment and time urgent action to control the degree of calamity from climate change, this technology is achievable with a transparent and committed international project that is planned and implemented immediately.

It will not only foster international trust and co-operation, but will trigger an enormous, diverse, healthy and clean industrial revolution that will represent a huge step in global cohesion and enlightenment.

The more recent strategy, embracing nuclear fusion [via the DPF reactor system] reveals the direct conversion of an extreme high temperature plasma to electrical power avoiding the elaborate and expensive thermal system that is traditional in power generation and propulsion. This strategy is called the Varney Protocol and the following associated documents outline the DPF reactor and its application to the market place.

The Varney Protocol – Summary

The Varney Protocol – An illustrated pressurized DPF reactor system

Prime objective, project set-up and funding framework [for first phase of prototype experimentation]

Removal from earth of all nuclear weapons and fissile material

Space-plane details & flight plan analysis

Both national and local governments, all the major corporations [Rolls-Royce, Siemens, General Electric, Airbus, Boeing and NASA] have received the listed documents and refuse to discuss the material, despite the fact that all oil, gas and coal fired power generating plants [in fact all power plants incorporating the combustion process] will be decommissioned, decontaminated and dismantled within the decade.

Why have today’s industrial societies been totally absent in planning and implementing such an all-important, urgent and necessary strategy?

I-40-Arizona-Sunset-on-Fossil-Fuel-PowerThe simple and tragic reason is that these important decisions are not made by politicians, they are made by a secretive, wealthy, powerful and ruthless cabal that represents [what President Eisenhower had originally coined] the military/industrial complex that informs sitting heads of governments, what strategies will be implemented. These strategies will meet with their requirements for widespread weapons production [for global sales] and extensive “Black budgets” that enable development and control of technologies that are perhaps a century in advance of technologies that are available to the rest of civilization.

Should this “cabal” practice transparency, a sincere sense of service to the worlds citizens and true compassion for the billions suffering from starvation, failing health, general poverty and exploitation [by the corporate world], they would ensure that all technologies [energy, transport systems] that would arrest global warming, promote a higher and healthier standard of living for everyone would be made available to every corner of the globe as a matter of absolute urgency.

Sometimes silence is golden.

Sometimes silence can be deadly if it equates to maintaining the status quo in regard to the use of fossil and nuclear fission fuels [and the existence of nuclear weapons with delivery systems].

From Transformation Protocol Canada, “We have a great opportunity, at this moment, to exercise faith in our collective scientific and technological capabilities, to leapfrog the more modest, methodical and comfortable research programs that are now in operation, to secure for our children and grand-children, a real opportunity to thrive in a world that can recover from the devastation that our collective stupidity has brought upon them.”

For this to happen in the short period of time available to us [before global warming and climate change proceeds to the condition that humanity can no longer control the deterioration of the environment from dooming are future existence], we must unite our efforts with the many experts and specialists able to transform this conceptual design into a practical reality.

It can be done and it must be done now, before we fall asleep in comfortable denial of the dire, global predicament.

The previously posted article Transformation Protocol Canada reveals a strategy to harness a variety of cold fusion plasmas by the injection into gas turbine systems, where a plasma-air mix chamber replaces the traditional combustion chamber and thus achieves a transformation from combustion. However this strategy involves the pressurization of the plasma process.