Deformation of electron outer shells important for Hyperion too, says Tsyganov

Physicist and cold fusion researcher Edward Tsyganov presented his research on low-energy collisions of atoms within a crystal at the Channeling 2012 Conference organized by the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). A description of this work was summarized in our Q&A A Physicist’s Formula with Tsyganov.

Now, Registration of energy discharge in D + D 4He⁄ reaction in conducting crystals (simulation of experiment) [.pdf] has been published along with the Proceedings of the conference, and Tsyganov had this to say about the results of his research presented in the paper, and in particular, how it relates to Defkalion Green Technologies recent demonstration of the Hyperion R5 reactor:

In the article presented to your attention here, we simulated the proposed experiment to further elucidate the nature of the process of the so-called cold fusion, which is observed in metallic crystals. We are convinced that in the present experimental evidence does not leave any room to doubt the reality of the existence of this phenomenon. Unfortunately, the negative attitude of the nuclear physics community to this new phenomenon, hastily formulated some 20 years ago in a poor repeatability of experiments of the time, remains dominant today.

It should be noted that the only calorimetric measurements, supporting cold fusion, have not been able to bring the experimenters to a correct explanation of this phenomenon. Help came from the accelerator experiments at low energies. It should be noted that the first cycle of these experiments took place in Japan as early as 1996-2000, but remained virtually unnoticed. Below these works are cited.

H Yuki, T Satoh, T Ohtsuki, T Yorita, Y Aoki, H Yamazaki and J Kasagi “D + D reaction in metal at bombarding energies below 5 keV”, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 23 (1997) 1459-1464

J. Kasagi, H. Yuki, T. Itoh, N. Kasajima, T. Ohtsuki and A. G. Lipson “Anomalously enhanced d (d, p) t reaction in Pd and PdO observed at very low bombarding energies”, the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion, 1998, Vancouver, Canada:, ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. : P. 180.

H. Yuki, J. Kasagi, A.G. Lipson, T. Ohtsuki, T. Baba, T. Noda, B.F. Lyakhov, N. Asami “Anomalous Enhancement of DD Reaction …”. JETP Letters, December 1998.

J. Kasagi, H. Yuki, T. Baba and T. Noda “Low Energy Nuclear Fusion Reactions in Solids”, 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion, 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

A.G. Lipson, G.H. Miley, A.S. Roussetski, A.B. Karabut “Strong enhancement of dd-reaction …” The work was presented at the ICCF 10 in 2003 and is interesting due to recorded soft X-ray radiation.

Already at the conference ICCF 7 April 1998, Prof. Bressani quite clearly laid out the path to an explanation of the process of cold fusion based on this series of experiments. [See Nuclear Physics Aspects of Cold Fusion Experiments Scientific Summary after ICCF-7 by T. Bressani .pdf.]

Unfortunately, the cold fusion community has not followed the Bressani call; each group had its own theory of the process. In 2002-2009, a similar accelerator experiments at Gran Sasso (Rolfs et al) and Berlin (Czerski et al) successfully produced similar results . References to this work are given in our article. However, even after these experiments very few people realize what all of this might mean.

In our analysis, the only hypothesis which provides sufficient explanation of this “cold fusion” phenomenon , which the traditional nuclear physics community has found difficult to accept, is the assumption that the sub-barrier fusion reactions in the nuclear decay rate of the resulting composite intermediate nucleus is slowing down if the excitation energy of the intermediate nucleus is reducing. In this case, at the thermal energy of the reagents intermediate compound nucleus becomes metastable, and the energy transfer process to the electrons of the crystal lattice through the exchange of so-called virtual photons becomes effective.

If we talk about the DD reaction in metallic crystals, for the practical start of the reaction, we need to fill in all the possible deuterium vacancies in the crystal. When these positions are not filled the reaction is practically not observed. This is due to the vacancy and the extended location of the deuterium atoms from one another. This fact was the main reason for poor repeatability of experiments in the past. As the vacancy is filled with deuterium, the double fillings appear where the fusion process becomes much faster due to the deformation of the electron shells of deuterium in metallic crystals.

To conclude, it is especially important to comment on the recent experiments on the Hyperion reactor, under the direction of John Hadjichristos (ICCF 18). Hadjichristos took an interesting comparison of the process of deformation of the outer electron orbits of the reacting atoms with the detail of the legend of the Trojan horse in the capture of Troy. As was noted earlier in our studies, the deformation of the electron orbits can effectively mask the Coulomb barrier in the fusion reaction at very low (thermal) energy.

An extremely interesting (if confirmed) result of the experiments on the Hyperion is the emergence of strong magnetic fields during the cold fusion reactions. This result often immediately shuts down many theoretical constructions which can only explain the released nuclear energy going directly to the thermal vibrations of the crystalline lattice by nothing short of a magical force. For this reason, the closer look at the current experimental data presented here is so essential.
Edward N. Tsyganov

Original text:

Уважаемые коллеги!

В предлагаемой вашему вниманию статье мы провели расчеты предполагаемого эксперимента по дальнейшему выяснению природы процесса так называемого холодного синтеза, наблюдающегося в условиях металлических кристаллов. По нашему убеждению, в настоящее время экспериментальные факты не оставляют места никакому сомнению в реальности существования этого феномена. К сожалению, отрицательное отношение сообщества ядерной физики к этому новому явлению, поспешно сформулированное около 20 лет тому назад в условиях недостаточной повторяемости экспериментов того времени, остается попрежнему доминиружщим.

Нужно отметить, что одни только калориметрические измерения, подтвеждающие холодный синтез, оказались не в состоянии привести экспериментаторов к правильному объяснению этого явления. Помощь пришла со стороны ускорительных экспериментов при низких энергиях. Нужно отметить, что первый цикл этих экспериментов прошел в Японии еще в 1996-2000 гг, но остался практически незамеченным. Ниже приводятся эти работы.

H Yuki, T Satoh, T Ohtsuki, T Yorita, Y Aoki, H Yamazaki and J Kasagi “D+D reaction in metal at bombarding energies below 5 keV”в журнале J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 23 (1997) 1459–1464

J. Kasagi, H. Yuki, T. Itoh, N. Kasajima, T. Ohtsuki and A. G. Lipson “Anomalously enhanced d(d,p)t reaction in Pd and PdO observed at very low bombarding energies”, the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion, 1998, Vancouver, Canada:, ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. : p. 180.

H. Yuki, J. Kasagi, A.G. Lipson, T. Ohtsuki, T. Baba, T. Noda, B.F. Lyakhov, N. Asami “Anomalous Enhancement of DD Reaction…”. Декабрь 1998 г, письма в ЖЭТФ.

J. Kasagi, H. Yuki, T. Baba and T. Noda “Low Energy Nuclear Fusion Reactions in Solids”, 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion, 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

A.G. Lipson, G.H. Miley, A.S. Roussetski, A.B. Karabut “Strong enhancement of dd-reaction…” Работа была доложена на ICCF 10 в 2003 г. Интересна тем, что там регистрировалось мягкое рентгеновское излучение.

Уже на конференции ICCF 7 в апреле 1998 г проф. Брессани достаточно ясно изложил путь к объяснению процесса холодного синтеза, основанный на этой серии экспериментов. К сожалению, сообщество холодного синтеза не последовало призывам Брессани, у каждой группы была своя теория процесса. В 2002-2009 гг успешно прошли аналогичные эксперименты на ускорителях в Гран Сассо (Ролфс и др.) и в Берлине (Черский и др.). Ссылки на эти работы даются в нашей статье. Тем не менее, даже после этого мало кто осознал, что все это может означать.

В нашем рассмотрении единственной гипотезой, которая необходима для объяснения холодного синтеза и с которой традиционным ядерным физикам оказалось трудно согласиться, является предположение о том, что в реакции подбарьерного синтеза скорость распадов образующегося составного промежуточного ядра по ядерным каналам замедляется при уменьшении энергии возбуждения этого ядра. В этом случае при тепловых энергиях реагентов составное промежуточное ядро оказывается метастабильным, и процесс передачи энергии этого ядра электронам кристаллической решетки посредством обмена так называемыми виртуальными фотонами становится эффективным.

Если говорить о реакции DD в металлических кристаллах, то для практического начала реакции нужно заполнить дейтерием все возможные вакансии в кристалле. Пока эти вакансии не заполнены, реакция практически не наблюдается, так как вакансии и, соответственно, атомы дейтерия располагаются достаточно далеко друг от друга. Это обстоятельство являлось главной причиной плохой повторяемости опытов. При дальнейшем заполнении кристалла дейтерием появляются вакансии с двойным заполнением, где процесс синтеза протекает очень быстро из-за деформированности электронных оболочек дейтерия в металлических кристаллах.

Завершая это предисловие, необходимо особенно отметить недавние эксперименты на установке Гиперион под руководством Джона Хаджихристоса (ICCF 18). Хаджихристос приводит интересное сравнение процесса деформации внешних электронных орбит реагирующих атомов внутри кристаллических кристаллов с подробностями легенды о троянском коне при взятии Трои. Как отмечалось в наших первых работах, деформация электронных орбит позволяет эффективно преодолевать кулоновский барьер в реакции синтеза при низких (тепловых) энергиях.

Исключительно интересным результатом (если он подтвердится) экспериментов на установке Гиперион можно назвать возникновение сильных магнитных полей при протекании реакции холодного синтеза. Даже один этот результат Гипериона сразу закрывает многие теоретические построения, в которых выделившаяся ядерная энергия некоторым магическим образом переходит непосредственно в тепловые колебания кристаллической решетки.

С уважением,

Э.Н. Цыганов

Successful Defkalion demo has scientists wanting more

Press Release –From: Attilia Cozzaglio <>

Google translate (original Italian below):

Cold Fusion: After the streaming of 22 and 23 July, Defkalion has decide to make more accurate measurements on his apparatus.

Saturday night, July 3 (Editor – August 3?) at 20:00, and then repeat Sunday the 4th at 23:00, Moebius will broadcast on Radio 24, a new chapter on the controversial story on cold fusion (better defined LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction).

On July 22, Moebius and TRIWU ‘organized a streaming from the Defkalion laboratories of Europe in Milan, devoted to describing how a cold fusion experiment works in general (also this definition is controversial), during the streaming in which it was amply clear that the appointment was far from presenting as a demo.

On 23 July, at the request of the International Conference on Cold Fusion taking place in Columbus, Missouri, Defkalion organized a long demo of about 10 hours, at which – since broadcast live on the Internet – was attended by a very large number of people, almost 30 thousand contacts, among which were many technicians. Specifically designed for an audience of 200 physicists gathered in Columbus, who watched for an hour and a half, there were many requests for clarification on the apparatus in operation.

This suggested to Defkalion the need to investigate aspects of the measurement.
In the interview on Saturday 3 July (Editor – August 3?) in Moebius will explain the various aspects of that decision.

The streaming video of the July 22 and 23 are available online at


Fusione fredda: dopo gli streaming del 22 e 23 luglio la Defkalion
decide di effettuare misure più accurate sul suo apparato.

Sabato sera 3 luglio alle 20, e poi in replica domenica 4 alle
23,all’interno della trasmissione di scienza Moebius, in onda su Radio
24, un nuovo capitolo dedicato alla controversa vicenda sulla fusione
fredda (meglio definita LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction).

Il 22 luglio scorso Moebius e TRIWU’ hanno organizzato un streaming
dai laboratori della Defkalion Europe a Milano, dedicati a descrivere
come funziona in generale un esperimento di fusione fredda (anche
questa definizione è controversa), streaming durante il quale si è
ampiamente chiarito che l’appuntamento era ben lontano dal presentarsi
come una demo.

Il 23 luglio la Defkalion, su richiesta delle Conferenza Mondiale
sulla fusione fredda in corso a Columbus nel Missouri, ha organizzato
una lunga demo di 10 ore circa, alla quale – era ovvio, essendo in
Internet – ha partecipato un numero decisamente ampio di persone,
quasi 30 mila contatti, fra i quali moltissimi tecnici. In
particolare, poi, da una platea di 200 fisici riuniti a Columbus, sono
arrivate, per un’ora e mezzo, molte richieste di chiarimento
sull’apparato in funzione.

Questa perfomance ha suggerito a Defkalion la necessità di
approfondire alcuni aspetti della misurazione.
Nell’intervista di sabato 3 luglio a Moebius si chiariranno i vari
aspetti di tale decisione.

I video degli streaming del 22 e 23 luglio sono disponibili on line su

Info :

Jeane Manning on live demo of Defkalion’s Hyperion

Jeane Manning, author of Breakthrough Power, has published an article in Atlantic Rising on her visit to Defkalion Green Technologies new office in Vancouver, Canada where she viewed a live demonstration of their Hyperion thermal generator.

Beyond LENR (aka ‘cold fusion’) to Useful Energy [.pdf] is available for free on Manning’s Changing Power website and describes a generator capable of producing 5 kilowatts of thermal power, with “several times” energy output.

A planned 45 kilowatt generator will be comprised of nine units in parallel. A test generator in Greece is claimed to run continuously for six months producing power at 45 kilowatts. Preferring to call the reaction Heat Energy Nuclei Interactions (HENI), the thermal energy was generated on just 3 grams of nickel powder and 2 liters of hydrogen.

The company moved to Vancouver “after their government failed to help the start-up company.” Canada “offered a stable environment for research-and-development companies, with a support network and fiscal incentives.” Additional labs in Athens, Milan, Italy as well as Brazil will be developing applications with multiple business partners.

Initially a partner with Andrea Rossi, Defkalion and Rossi split after differences arose over contractual issues. Deciding to develop a generator on their own, the company began with the premise that only after achieving stability and control would they scale up to high heat output.

The article quotes Peter Gluck, a chemist and longtime low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) researcher. “Cold fusion came before its time. It is too complex, too new, too unexpected, too messy, too multifaceted, too dynamic, too non-linear and too weird to be really understood and controlled at the time of its discovery.”

Defkalion’s Chief Technical Officer John Hadjichristos responded “Science is one, and we have to keep it that way if we want to keep on talking with Mother Nature …We cannot see or listen and understand her stories if we stop talking to and hearing each other.”

Defkalion: “We’re not selling products, we sell technology”

SterlingAllanJuly24_2004_head_150sSterling Allan of the Pure Energy Systems network follows multiple types of new energy technologies, including cold fusion.

Last year he traveled to Greece to check on the progress of Defkalion Green Technologies Hyperion steam-generator, a prototype commercial product based on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) that utilizes nickel and light hydrogen.

Recently, Allan interviewed Defkalion‘s CEO Alex Xanthoulis and Director of Communication and Business Development Symeon Tsalikoglou on developments since moving their headquarters to Vancouver, B.C.

While the Hyperion domestic unit has been “put on the back burner”, Defkalion has been approached by hundreds of companies wanting to license their technology for various products. The company has narrowed those proposals down to 20 which they will pursue.

“They let the professionals in the industry work out the details of fitting the technology to the myriad of applications out there,” writes Allan.

One of the applications cited is shipping. “A large cargo ship (18,000 to 20,000 tons) can go through $20,000 worth of fuel each day, but with Defkalion’s technology, those costs would go down to $500/day — a 40-fold reduction in price.”

Savings on fuel costs, weight, space, and time (since ships won’t have to stop and refuel as often) are all benefits of this technology. No fossil fuels on board mean no nasty spills either.

Another high-priority project is replacing the dirty and dangerous radioactive fuel rods in today’s nuclear power plants with clean cold fusion steam generators. “The price for a retrofitted nuclear plant will be 12 times lower than what they presently operate at,” producing power at $0.35 per kilowatt-hour.

Eventually, home units will be available, and the energy cost for this off-grid technology “is expected to be less than $300 for six months, for a 550 square meter (6000 ft2) home” with the charge lasting six months.

All licensees for applications are required to test the technology on their own.

A mass spectrometer surrounds Hyperion reactor.
A mass spectrometer surrounds Hyperion reactor.
Allan writes, “One US Company tested the Defkalion technology for about six months and reported that there was no harmful radiation emitted whatsoever (they thoroughly tested the full spectrum), and that only some gamma rays are emitted during the reaction — but no more than you get from a household toaster — well within safety limits. And sometimes, it doesn’t even emit any harmless gamma radiation while it is operating — puzzling the scientists who haven’t yet figured that one out, who think that with every transmutation event there should be a gamma emission.”

Currently, their demonstration model generates 5 kilowatts of thermal energy and it is claimed that one unit has been operating for 8 months.

Last August, a Technical Characteristics and Performance report [.pdf] was released at ICCF-17, the International Conference on Cold Fusion where Defkalion presented.

Details of the unit given to Allan recently were:

Excess heat graph from Defkalion nickel-hydrogen system.
Excess heat graph from Defkalion nickel-hydrogen system.
“Most of the input energy is up front when it is brought up to 180 C, then the input is tapered off until it is just a quick pulse from a spark plug every 10-15 seconds. It takes about 1-2 hours to stabilize. So in the first 24 hours, the COP is 1:5 (five times more energy out than what is put in). But over time it gets so good that Alex doesn’t like to say what it is because it comes across as unbelievable.”

“The output temperatures range from between 350 and 500 degrees Celsius. It once went up to 860 C in just 30 seconds, but that was an accident, and caused damage because the materials are not designed for that, so they cap it at 500 C.”

Seven regional labs around the globe are working on next-generation models, with each lab developing a particular application. The core team is currently engineering R5, a reactor designed specifically for controlling while the next reactor R6 will be for “pure performance”.

One avenue which won’t be pursued is military contracts. Apparently, current business agreements have a clause that says the technology “won’t be used for military purposes”, good news for civilians around the planet. However, the company realizes that after release, these generators will be copied and they won’t have control over it’s purpose.

Defkalion plans a public demonstration of their work at NIWeek 2013 this August at National Instruments in Austin, Texas. Till then, as a business entity, they will follow Alexander the Great’s model, attempting to be first to market. Alexander had “45,000 soldiers compared to the foes 500,000 that were superior in knowledge and skill. He won by being first.”

Read the full article Defkalion lying low, preparing for some big splashes by Sterling Allan here.

2nd Commercial Cold Fusion Generator Planned for 2012 Release

Note: This article has been updated several times. Apologies to all. It is an effect of the digital environment that nothing can be known (Jean Baudrillard and Bob).

defkalion green technologiesA second commercial product based on cold fusion technology is planned for release next year.

Yesterday Praxen-Defkalion Green Technologies released a Technical Specifications Sheet detailing elements of the Hyperion thermal energy generator that creates heat using a nickel-hydrogen exothermic reaction Ni-H, the same technology that the Energy Catalyzer E-Cat generates.

Marketed for industrial and agriculture uses, the Hyperion will come in two models. A larger model will produce a thermal output power ranging from 10-45 kiloWatts and require at most 310 W electrical input power to run. That’s an energy return between 32-145 times the energy input.

The smaller model is a 5-11 kiloWatt output of steam power and requires an input of at most 200 W input of electrical power, giving an energy return ranging from 25-32 times the energy input.

The 5 kW unit has a reactor of dimensions 12 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm (12 cm = 4.7 in).

Defkalion Green Technologies Hyperion
Internal view of Hyperion thermal energy generator. Photo Praxis-Defkalion Press Release Nov. 14
A 2 liter bottle of hydrogen fuel and the nickel powder that hosts the reaction will need to be recharged approximately every 6 months for the 5 kW model.

The 45 kW unit can last up to one year on a hydrogen fuel charge and almost 3 years for the nickel powder.

More than 98% of the material weight of the Hyperion is made from recycled materials, and the nickel is recyclable when spent.

According to their website, the Praxen company is located in Cyprus and holds “full rights to its own technologies and will sell exclusive rights globally for the production of its proprietary products (Hyperion).” Defkalion Green Technologies is based in Greece and will license the product.

They also claim the Hyperion patent is pending, as are most patents in this area of new-energy research. The lack of patents granted in this field has stifled development of a technology that promises ultra-clean energy for a fraction of the cost of fossil fuels.

Private investment has eschewed the mostly small, independent companies developing cold fusion energy generators because the intellectual property has not been secured. Inventors, engineers, and scientists working in this area have been largely self-funded and forced to operate in an environment of secrecy.

There is speculation that the Hyperion is based on Andrea A. Rossi’s E-Cat invention, even to the extent of improperly procuring technology without his consent. Defkalion was associated with Mr. Rossi earlier this year and had a distribution contract for the E-Cat before their partnership dissolved over the summer.

Mats Lewan of NYTeknik has been regularly reporting on the E-Cat and recently wrote of an August telephone conversation with Alexandros Xanthoulis, a Defkalion representative who said, “I know what he’s got in the reactor, I know everything. It was a spectroscopy made by the University of Siena Padua.”

Spectroscopy of the interior of an E-Cat would reveal the elements within, thereby exposing the “secret catalyst” that made the E-Cat generate such high levels of thermal energy.

If true, litigation may be the news for 2012, and the years to come.

Praxen-Defkalion is one of the larger groups to enter this fast-developing area of new-energy technology. The specifications released yesterday show an advanced proto-type generator and that they are well positioned to deliver strong research and development. They admit “an incomplete proof of theories” to describe the reaction, nevertheless, Defkalion engineers have been very busy determining the conditions to keep the generator strong and stable.

Combined with access and support from the Greek government and European business community, they will be a formidable competitor in this still wide-open market for new energy technology.

Where their technology originated remains a question.

What is clear is they are serious about the Hyperion as a commercial product, hoping Greece can become “the global centre for R&D on LENR technologies.”

Related Links

Articles on Defkalion from Cold Fusion Now

Roy Virgilio releases more details on the Piantelli patent by Ivy Matt Cold Fusion Now July 25, 2011

Roy Virgilio on Piantelli, plus the 2008 Piantelli hypothesis by Ivy Matt Cold Fusion Now August 16, 2011

Review of Cold Fusion patents – Piantelli PCT #2 by David J. French Cold Fusion Now August 21, 2011

Defkalion Announces Hyperion 5kW LENR product by Sterling Allan PESN

Defkalion Green Technologies homepage

E-Cat homepage

Defkalion Green Technologies press release on Hyperion product line.

defkalion green technologiesDefkalion Green Technologies has announced on its website forum the planned release of its Hyperion line, a series of thermal energy devices based on Andrea A. Rossi’s E-Cat technology. The Greek company first formed to license Mr. Rossi’s E-Cats around the world though their association ended recently for reasons publicly unknown.

On June 23 of this year, Defkalion had a press conference and released a white paper describing the Hyperion line which, at that time, was “in its final stages of becoming an industrialized and commercially viable prototype.” Today’s press release implies that the company has improved on the original designs, and that the recent demonstration by Mr. Rossi included some aspects of the original Hyperion technology and was “implemented wrongly”.

According to the June white paper, “the current range of products produce from 6 to 30 times more heat than the energy it takes to run the machine” and their Hyperion product line “ranges from kW units (5 – 30kW) to MW units (1.15 – 3.45 MW).”

The content of today’s press release did not lay out any specific timetable for their units’ release, just that Defkalion is “ready for production” of their “self-financed” line. They reject any demonstrations of their units before the final product is ready to issue, though they claim that 62 companies have been in contact with Defkalion, in some cases, witnessing ‘their work’.

Previously, Defkalion Green Technologies had listed board members that included former heads of state as well as high-level financiers and industrialists from Greece, Italy and the European Union. Christos Stremmenos, a chemical engineer and friend of Mr. Rossi who attended the recent October 6 E-Cat demonstration, is also listed as a board member. They appear to be a formidable team with the ability and clout to produce and distribute their technology worldwide.

Just what purpose the press release was intended to serve is unknown. However, it’s clear that cold fusion energy technology is breaking through from multiple locales.

Whoever is first to market will have that special honor and a place in history, but the new-energy technology market is so huge that there is more than enough room for the multitudes of entrepreneurs sure to follow. Indeed, the evolution of this technology will engage generations as it develops from these first steps to a fully integrated component of our daily lives.

Defkalion Green Technologies homepage

Defkalion Website is Live by Ivy Matt June 23, 2011

Interviews with Rossi and Xanthoulis by Ivy Matt June 29. 2011

First commercial cold fusion reactor tested in Bologna by Ruby Carat October 6, 2011