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The 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion held this past August 12-17, 2012 in Daejon, South Korea hosted this elite group of individuals and labs who came to share their work on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) and they have shared their presentations with us.
The following is a further posting in a series of articles by David French, a patent attorney with 35 years experience, which will review patents of interest and other matters touching on the field of Cold Fusion.
This is a report of the technology presented at ICCF-17 but released in the spring of 2012 following demonstrations held at MIT over January 30-31, 2012. I personally attended those demonstrations and can confirm that the graphic outputs referenced below and in the ICCF-17 presentation of Dr Peter Hagelstein were in fact generated on that occasion. This may be the technology that demonstrates Cold Fusion in a way that can be observed by anyone around the world.
Breaking the Dam of Disbelief
The year 2013 will be the year in which the dam of disbelief respecting the Fleischmann & Pons phenomena will finally break. This will start with the recent successful showing of the film “The Believers” in Chicago on October 16 and its follow-up presentations. The press will gradually notice the issue. Enough courageous journalists will demand from their editors page-space to expose the shabby treatment of this phenomenon that has occurred over the past 22 years.
Sufficient demonstrations of unexplained excess energy have been repeated in laboratories around the world to shatter the paradigm that Cold Fusion is a pathological science. The result will be a demand for experiments that can be reliably duplicated by persons, agencies, laboratories and businesses around the world interested in re-examining this New Energy Effect.
Need for a Commercially Vendible demonstration of Cold Fusion
An opportunity exists to sell and distribute widely electronic data acquisition and presentation equipment in conjunction with a practical set-up that demonstrates Cold Fusion. Such an arrangement should:
• not rely on the presence of pressurized hydrogen or electrolyte fluids
• operate at moderate temperatures
• provide ready access to the reactor center for easy experimentation
• allow ready substitution of reactive elements for repair and alternate testing procedures
• impose minimum power requirements
• clearly demonstrate a Cold Fusion/LENR effect
• allow a variety of experiments to be conducted by users.
All of these experiments should both serve to demonstrate the Cold Fusion effect and allow researchers to better understand and advance the exploitation of this phenomenon
Opportunity presented by the JET Energy Inc’s “Nanor”
JET Energy Inc. is a company established just outside Boston, Massachusetts by Dr Mitchell Swartz. Mitchell Swartz was one of the original experimenters in the field of Cold Fusion; he became involved directly after the Fleischmann & Pons effect was demonstrated in 1989. Mitchell Swartz has been working with Dr Peter Hagelstein, a professor at MIT and one of the eminent theoreticians in this field. The following information is taken from a paper presented by Dr Peter Hagelstein on behalf of Dr Mitchell Swartz and Jet Energy Inc at ICCF-17. The paper for this presentation will form part of the final report of the ICCF-17 proceedings.
JET Energy has developed a demonstration Cold Fusion reactor that relies on a simple core element that is essentially the size of an ohmic resistor. This “Nanor” ™ contains nanostructured pellets of Palladium embedded in zirconium oxide insulation that are pre-loaded with high pressure deuterium and sealed into a small cylinder with electrical connections at the respective ends. The similarity in outward appearance to an ohmic resistor is exact.
For purposes of demonstrating the Cold Fusion effect and quantifying the excess heat being generated, this small cylindrical element, the “NANOR™”, is utilized in conjunction with a “control resistor” bonded along side. The bonding agent is a thermally conductive but electrically insulative glue. Both elements provide easily accessible independent electrical leads at their respective ends.
These components are contained in a thermally isolated environment. Optionally the assembly can be placed inside a traditional calorimeter, but this is not essential. Temperature sensors are bonded to the system which, in conjunction with the control resistor can function equivalently to a calorimeter.
To achieve a Cold Fusion/New Energy effect Dr Swartz passes a low-level current through the Nanor, e.g. 10 milliwatts. Perhaps there are other features included in the control circuit and wave form applied. Whatever special tricks are used, the result is to produce more than a minimal amount of excess energy that conclusively demonstrates this new energy effect. To quantify the results, the following arrangement is employed.
Before activating the Nanor, a small current is first passed through the control resistor adjacent to the Nanor. Due to the ohmic resistance in the control resistor the temperature in this resistor, along with that of the Nanor which is glued close by, rises by a small amount, e.g. 1-2 Centigrade degrees. The amount of current and voltage across the resistor are noted, giving the amount of power needed to create this rise in temperature. After the temperature rise generated by the control resistor has relaxed to its starting value, power is applied in turn to the Nanor.
Sufficient current is fed through the Nanor to produce an approximate rise in temperature equivalent to that just achieved in the control resistor. Remarkably, far less power need be applied to the Nanor to achieve this effect, i.e. less power is required to reach a similar temperature to that established using the control resistor. Put alternately, when comparable energies are applied to the Nanor, a greater temperature rise occurs in the Nanor than occurs in the control resistor. These experiments demonstrate the unequivocal generation of unexplained excess energy.
The power circuitry incorporates a control system that alternates between first heating the control resistor with a known amount of electrical power and then applying a lower level of electrical power to the Nanor. The temperature rise generated first in the control resistor and then in the Nanor as detected by the temperature sensor is shown graphically on the screen of a computer. Using this arrangement the Nanor has demonstrated gains on the order of 800 to 1600%, i.e. a coefficient of performance – COP of 8-16. The graphic display showing this effect can be seen here.
The gain is represented by the ratio of the respective heights for the normalized temperature of the Nanor, indicated by “delta-T/pin” curve, with respect the height of the stepped trace for “input power”, both on the right-side of the display. Here, it is important to note that “normalizing” the delta-T (dividing the measured delta-T by the measured applied power) has the effect of removing the step-like response of the delta-T to the step-like application of input power, resulting in a “flat” response of the control resistor, and a “flatter” response of the NANOR. Note that this normalized gain falls off somewhat with increasing power for the Nanor.
From the graph it is demonstrated that providing lower power to the Nanor will achieve the same temperature excursion as that demonstrated by the control resistor using higher power. While the effect is not being monitored at a constant temperature, the temperature excursions are very small, e.g. 1-2 centigrade degrees. Therefore results nearly equivalent to having a complex constant-temperature calorimeter are achieved. Essentially, the energy output of the Nanor is inferred by comparing the temperature change achieved to that produced by the control resistor. With the high COP’s being achieved, the result is unmistakable.
The temperature rise of the Nanor-control resistor combination is conveniently presented on a computer display in which the temperature traces are arranged graphically directly following each other. The cycle is carried-out repeatedly, with a relaxation delay in between, to provide interlaced graphic demonstrations of the generation of unexplained excess heat next to a calibration curve. As this effect continues for many days, the only possible conclusion is that the excess energy is arising from some form of nuclear effect. Hence this apparatus demonstrates the reality of “Cold Fusion” or some nuclear process the mechanism of which is not yet conclusively established.
Stepped power increases
In order to produce more information in the computer display, the electrical circuitry supporting the demonstration applies power to both the control resistor and the Nanor in steps of regularly increasing applied power. Each time the power rises by a step, the temperature of the system rises by a related step. The correlation is not precisely even. Further this feature demonstrates that the Nanor exhibits differing gains when driven at different power levels. Importantly, the Nanor can be over-driven, providing a COP which is reduced from the maximum possible once the optimum power input is exceeded. This is readily apparent from the display.
Packaging the kit
The Nanor demonstration apparatus is very compact. The Nanor and control resistor pair would, by themselves, fit in a very small insulated box if the decision were made to dispense with the standard surrounding calorimeter apparatus. A surrounding calorimeter apparatus could be employed as a back-up to demonstrate that, over time, you can measure the accumulating excess heat that is being generated. In fact, only a small insulated box is required if it is accepted that the temperature excursion demonstrated by the control resistor can serve to calibrate the amount of heat envolving when the Nanor is operating.
Dispensing with the traditional calorimeter allows the reactor box to be hardly larger than a package of cigarettes. Coupled to the wires leading out of this box are a power supply and a data acquisition device. The data acquisition device provides an output that generates the display on the screen of a personal computer. The device so presented would fit, together with its data acquisition device and cables for linking to a PC, into a standard briefcase. Indeed, the briefcase could also include the PC since there would be enough room to fit it in!
Since the reactor can be contained in a relatively small volume it would be easily accessible to install substitute replacements or alternate arrangements which are instrumented according to the desires of a researcher. By providing pre-instrumented variations in the Nanor a variety of experiments could be carrying my users. In every case, the object would be to determine the ways in which it is possible to modulate the Cold Fusion effect. Anyone purchasing the kit would have the advantage of a quick-learning tool to get up-to-speed on the principles of this new and extremely important phenomenon. Universities could buy multiple units for their undergraduate students.
Some of the experiments that could be conducted include:
• varying the applied DC field to determine the effect on gain or COP. This means identifying the “sweet spot”, also known as the “Optimal Operating Point”
• varying the “relaxation” time between initiating a repetition of excess heat events to determine the effect
• carrying-out the various processes at differing ambient temperatures for the Nanor
• applying an AC component of varying frequencies and strength to the applied DC field
• encircling the Nanor with an insulated wire and applying a co-axial magnetic field while carrying-out the repertoire of other manipulations
• placing a pair of collateral electrostatic plate electrodes on either side of the Nanor and applying varying electrostatic fields, both DC and AC to determine the effect on the excess heat event
• attaching ultrasound transducers to the side of the Nanor to determine the effect of ultrasound on the excess heat effect
• carrying-out experiments with the Nanor having various levels of loading
• carrying out the experiments with twin or triple Nanors surrounding the control resistor, each instrumented with temperature sensors to establish the relative consistency of behavior of the respective Nanors.
Opportunity for Commercialization
JET Energy’s Nanor represents a demonstrated, operational system for researchers to explore the Cold Fusion effect. It is ideally adapted to being integrated into a unit suitable for sale to universities and laboratories, indeed to high schools, as a demonstration device confirming the existence of the Cold Fusion/LENR/New Energy Effect phenomena. Indeed, this demonstration can operate with a normal home PC on the kitchen table top.
This is an ideal system for introducing this new science to the world. JET Energy Inc. is presently working to improve the Nanor and develop a vendible package. Who is going to be the first to step forward and boost JET Energy’s innovation to the forefront of the coming wave of commercial applications that will rely on this wonderful new discovery for humanity?
The videos of the lecture from Daejeon ICCF-17 have arrived. I must lay out the ground rules and provisos. I am not allowed to rebroadcast the lectures. I am not allowed to release the password. These are the wishes of the conveners and I have to respect them. They, the Cold Fusion, experimenters and presenters of the lectures are the heroes of this story, not I. I am but a member of the peanut gallery.
I feel that I am at liberty to give my impression of the lectures, however you must understand that my comprehension is very limited. If that is unsatisfactory you only have yourself to blame. You should have been there.
The first lecture I shall write about is that given by Professor Hagelstein. Here is what I understood of his lecture. Professor Hagelstein is a theoretician. He is tasked with creating models explaining the empirical results of the Experimenters. The gold standard of a model is it’s predictive power.
Model 281 did not work and had to buried out in the back yard. However it was intuitively correct. It predicted a coupling of phonon energy and nuclear energy. Takahashi objected to the model on the grounds that it was not reversible. It would not transmit energy in both directions. Professor Hagelstein thought this might be due to losses.
There are two elements in the coupling process: the nucleus and the phonons. The nuclear energy is too large and the phonon energy is too small. What Professor Hagelstein needed was a nuclear energy 100 times smaller, so he turned to Quarks. And then things began to look a lot brighter. How bright? 1.5keV x-ray bright. You see Karabut had been rabbiting on at a previous ICCF meeting that he was obtaining 1.5keV x-rays from his gas discharge experiments.
And then events began to make Professor Hagelstein fall off his chair in amazement and delight. He fell off his chair three times to be exact. I would love to tell you why he fell off his chair but he began to babble mathematics and so I was lost.
However all was not lost because I managed to get something about a lossy spin Boson chopping his energy up into small enough pieces so that they were digestible by the phonons. I have a picture of a carrier wave of a radio signal that might help you visualize the coupling of the two elements. The short signal wave is the energetic nuclear and the longer carrier signal is the low energy of the phonons.
Professor Hagelstein described the process creating the x-rays was as if a little hammer was striking the surface of the mercury repeatedly.
The energy distribution of the collimated x-rays fit professor Hagelstein’s equations beautifully. The more energetic the hammer blows the broader the x-ray, which makes sense to me.
OK. Let’s pull this thing together.
We now have a channel for energy to flow from the nucleus to the matrix and vice versa. So, mass in the Nucleus can be annihilated and the energy transmitted to the “outside world” beyond the Coulomb barrier, and energy can also flow into the nucleus from phonons coupled to the nucleus. This energy is stored as Mass. And we all know what happens if you increase the mass of a nucleus, don’t we. It transmutes.
I am guessing either to another isotope if the mass is large enough to be a neutron, or into another element. Professor Hagelstein said that a geologist told him that there is more aluminum along fault lines and less iron.
Your homework is to figure out why. And that is as good as it gets for now.
As has been pointed out previously, as developments regarding LENR continue to occur at an increasing pace, and from a growing number of individuals and companies, it is sometimes difficult to keep track of relevant news. In the last article, I tried to bring everybody up-to-date with news regarding Defkalion as they transitioned from Greece to Canada. Now I would like to take a closer look at Brillouin Energy Corporation.
For those who have been following the story closely, there is nothing new to report per se. Many are already aware that Brillouin, as reported first here on Cold Fusion Now, has received a patent for their technology from the Chinese government. They have also entered into a formal agreement with SRI International to further develop and scale up their NHB (New Hydrogen Boiler) technology as the next step towards commercialization. BEC has also negotiated with Sunrise Securities of New York, NY, for a “second stage” $20 million conditional investment agreement. If Brillouin meets the conditions set out in the agreement, which includes making a preliminary agreement to retrofit a small (5-10 MW) conventional power plant, the $20 million investment from Sunset Securities will make Brillouin the most robustly capitalized company in the LENR field.
In this article I would like to bring attention to two presentations given by Brillouin in the last few months. The first is a document the company presented at ICCF-17. Most readers of this site were unable to attend the conference in South Korea and may have missed Brillouin’s disclosure of recent experiments done with Michael McKubre of SRI International. Many have heard of this collaboration but have been unable to look at the data. A PDF of this presentation has been available on-line but many are not aware of it or have not had the access or inclination to view it. With the permission of Robert Godes, CTO and president of Brillouin, I have reformatted the PDF to fit on this web site in order to provide access to a greater number of people. Secondly, at the bottom of the page, I have included a slide show presentation released by Brillouin that outlines the technology and gives an overview of their plans for commercialization. This presentation also includes details of their agreement with Sunrise Securities (see slide #14).
I hope readers find this information enlightening and that it will foster a better understanding of the important and careful work being done by BEC. I hope you will refer interested friends and colleagues to this article for that same purpose.
Controlled Electron Capture and the Path Toward Commercialization
Robert Godes, Robert George, Francis Tanzella, and Michael McKubre2  Brillouin Energy Corp., United States, firstname.lastname@example.org  SRI International, United States
We have run over 150 experiments using two different cell/calorimeter designs. Excess power has always been seen using Q pulses tuned to the resonance of palladium and nickel hydrides in pressurized vessels. Excess energies of up to 100% have been seen using this excitation method.
Index Terms– Cold Neutrons, Electrolysis, Electron Capture, Excess Heat.
We started with the hypothesis that metal hydrides stimulated at frequencies related to the lattice phonon resonance would cause protons or deuterons to undergo controlled electron capture. If this hypothesis is true then less hydride material would be needed to produce excess power. Also, this should lead to excess power (1) on demand, (2) from light H2O electrolysis, and (3) from the hydrides of Pd, Ni, or any matrix able to provide the necessary confinement of hydrogen and obtain a Hamiltonian value greater than 782KeV. Also, the excess power effect would be enhanced at high temperatures and pressures.
Brillouin’s lattice stimulation reverses the natural decay of neutrons to protons and Beta particles, catalyzing this endothermic step. Constraining a proton spatially in a lattice causes the lattice energy to be highly uncertain. With the Hamiltonian of the system reaching 782KeV for a proton or 3MeV for a deuteron the system may be capable of capturing an electron, forming an ultra-cold neutron or di-neutron system. The almost stationary ultra-cold neutron(s) occupies a position in the metal lattice where another dissolved hydrogen is most likely to tunnel in less than a nanosecond, forming a deuteron / triton / quadrium by capturing the cold neutron and releasing binding energy.
This would lead to helium through a Beta decay. The expected half-life of the beta decay: if J_(4H)=0−, 1−, 2−, τ1/2 ≥ 10 min; if J_(4H)=0+, 1+, τ1/2 ≥ 0.03 sec. Personal correspondence with Dr. D. R. Tilley confirmed that the result of such a reaction would be β¯ decay to 4He.
Early Pd/H2O electrolysis experiments used a well-mixed, open electrolysis cell in a controlled flowing air enclosure. The temperature probes were verified to +/- 0.1°C at 70°C and +/- 0.3°C at 100°C. We simultaneously ran live and blank (resistive heater) cells, maintaining identical constant input power in both cells. High-voltage, bipolar, narrow pulses were sent through the cathode and separately pulse-width modulated (PWM) electrolysis through the cell (between the anode and cathode). Input power was measured using meters designed to measure power high frequency (HF) PWM systems. NaOH solutions were used for high conductivity. Differential thermometry suggested excess power up to 42% and 9W (Fig. 4).
II. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Our recent test data were generated autonomously through the use of a fully instrumented pressurized test vessel that permits much greater control over experiments than was possible using the “open container” test cells from Phase One experiments.
A. Reactor Components
The components of the most recent closed-cell Wet Boiler are shown in Fig. 1.
Those components include:
• A 130bar pressure vessel with a band heater
• A 28AWG (.31mm) Ni 270 cathode
• Ni 270 wire mesh anode
• 0.5 liter of 0.15 to .5M NaOH solution
• Thermal transfer oil coolant loop with a heat exchanger. MobilTherm 603
• Platinum resistive temperature detector’s (RTD’s) measuring input and output coolant temperatures.
• Mass Flow meter in the coolant line.
• An catalytic recombiner , used for safety.
• Resistance heater for calorimetric calibration
B. Power Measurements
We performed conservative measurement of the input power into the reaction chamber and the control board. All inputs, including inductive and logic circuits losses, are counted as power applied to the system All power used for stimulation and control of the cell is measured. The power delivered to the band heater is provided by a Chroma 61602 programmable AC source.
A 100 MHz Fluke 196C oscilloscope meter, operating in “AC (rms) + DC” mode, was used to measure the all input cell power applied to the primary control system. Output power is calculated from the heat removed from the inside of the test cell by pumping an organic fluid (MobileTherm 603) through a heat exchanger immersed in the electrolyte inside the cell. The electrolyte is heated by the stimulation of the electrodes. An external heat exchanger extracts heat from the circulating organic fluid. The net heat in and out is carefully measured and the difference is tabulated. The flow rate is measured by a positive displacement flow sensor (Kytola 2950-2-AKTN). 100Ω platinum RTD’s are used to measure the cooling fluid’s inlet and outlet temperatures, placed just before and just after the cooling loop, respectively. Room temperature in the immediate environment of the test cell is also measured using a 100Ω platinum RTD.
Heat also escapes from the test cell via conductive and radiative loses. Heat flows out of the test cell through the top of the test cell, its supporting brackets to a shelf, and through its insulation. This is accounted for in the software, following extensive calibrations of the cell running with out stimulation pulses (Q).
The bias of the measurement scheme is to under-report thermal output. The electrolysis recombination activity in the headspace of the vessel increases the amount of the conduction and radiative losses at the top of the cell as it heats up and conducts more thermal energy through its mechanical supports. These losses become less significant at higher operation rates as the recombination heat layer moves down to the point where the heat exchange can begin to pick up more of that recombination energy.
C. Cell Calibration and Operation
This system recovers 98% of the heat input by the control band heater alone. The circulating oil is not able to remove all of the recombination energy in the test cell. A significant amount of the recombination energy escapes by conduction through the brackets that secure the cell to the shelf that holds it in place. The method chosen to measure these parasitic heat losses is simple and accurate. The test cell has an electric resistance heating unit called the band heater. The band heater uses a known quantity of watts to heat the entire system to a selected temperature: 70, 80 or 100 degrees C. It takes 132 watts from the band heater to heat and hold the vessel to 70 degrees C with the cooling oil circulating in the cooling circuit. Measurements of the circulating oil show that the oil continuously removes 90 watts at this set point. The difference (delta) is 42 watts and this is the amount heat is “lost” from the vessel by thermal conduction and radiated heat. At 80 degrees C, the calculated parasitic loss figure is 45 watts and at 100 degrees C the parasitic loss is 47 watts.
Using this simple technique, at these three set points the amount of heat leaves the system in excess of that removed by the circulating oil is quantified to calibrate the measurements. This information is used in the data shown in the following slides. Table 1 shows the parasitic heat losses at 70, 80 and 100°C.
The cell/calorimeter is designed to operate at up to 200°C and up to 130bar. The pressurized cell is controlled using LabView® software (National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA) that continuously and automatically collects information about energy flow in and out of the test cell. All experimental data are methodically and systematically archived and recorded to disk. The thermal load due to radiative and conductive losses, in addition to that collected by the heat exchanger, are approximately 400 watts at a vessel temperature of 100°C but can achieve more than 2000 watts at 200°C. The working fluid’s inlet temperature is maintained using a re-circulating chiller (Neslab RTE111).
During operation we have applied up to 800 total watts. The only input to the system is electric power and the only output from the system is heat.
The AC stimulation consists of alternating high voltage positive and negative pulses, approximately 100ns wide, of duty cycles up to 1% or repetition rates of up to 100 KHz
Representative results of experiments operated in our pressurized cell/calorimeter are described below. Excess power is defined as the number of watts generated in the cell exceeding that supplied to the cell. The ratio of output to input power is often plotted as percentage.
When the output, for example, is twice that of the input, the amount of excess power is 100%.
The following experiments described herein were designed to measure excess power produced using proprietary electrical stimulation of nickel containing dissolved hydrogen.
A. Experiment 1
Experiment 1 yielded excess power of over 50% for approximately 2 days. Fig. 2 shows the calorimetric results and effect of stimulation frequency soon after 50% excess power was measured in the cell.
The amount of excess power shown on the screen is approximately 59 %. During this time period there was 107 watts in, 170 watts out, yielding 63 watts excess power, with the cell temperature at 76°C and pressure of 84bar. Approximately 32 watts power was applied to the catalyst and is included in the 107W total input power.
B. Experiment 2
Fig. 3 plots the power and temperature recorded during a complete 66-hour Ni/H2O electrolysis experiment.
Excess power of over 50% was recorded for much of this experiment. We repetitively swept Q repetition rate while stepping up Q amplitude and then a third parameter affecting Q shape to examine the effects and interplay among them.
The excess heat produced during this run shown in Figure 3 declined as additional power was applied. The red line plots the percentage of excess power, blue the sum of the electrical inputs, and green the temperature of the test cell. The repetitive spikes in the data are due to the cycling of Q repetition rate and the downward sloping trend indicates the increase in power to a change in the shape of the Q pulses. This slide indicates that the level of the production of excess power does not rely exclusively on input power since increasing input power reduced absolute amount of excess power. The automated test system now has the ability to automatically sequence 4 separate input variables. When the Q pulse shape stepped out of an optimal operating point the red and blue plots crossed.
C. Experiment 3
Fig. 4 plots the calorimetric and temperature data for a subsequent Ni/H2O electrolysis experiment.
In this experiment we examined the effect of changing specific input parameters. This plot shows a thermal output 50% greater than input for 14 hours. A gradual increase in temperature tracks small incremental increases in both the DC and AC currents. This continued for 12 hours past the end of this plot as seen in Fig. 5., which shows the sharp response of the system to input power while everything else was held constant.
A jump in excess heat from less than 55% to almost 70% was produced using the settings input during the second half of the experiment on February 15th. Learning from this data, we modified electric inputs to exceed these results.
D. Experiment 4
Fig. 6 plots the calorimetric and temperature data for part of a Ni/H2O electrolysis experiment. While holding total input power constant Q pulse shape was changed, which yielded excess power production in excess of 75% for approximately 11 hours.
After achieving a thermal steady state, the system performed well for the duration of the test. Subsequently a new set of input parameters were utilized in this experiment, after which the excess power peaked at approximately 85% and was above 80% for more than seven hours.E. Experiment 5
Fig. 7 plots the calorimetric and temperature data for part of a Ni/H2O electrolysis experiment.
This was the first time the excess power exceeded 100%, meaning the “watts out” were twice the “watts in.” Certain electrical inputs to the cell were changed deliberately in a proprietary manner effecting Q frequency content.
This experiment is important because it shows both our upward discovery trend and because it exceeded the important 100% milestone. These set of representative experiments showed that we have progressed well beyond the results with the open-cell experiments described in the Background section.
F. Experiment 6
Experiment 6 shows the effect of changing the repetition rate of the high voltage stimulation pulses. Figure 8 plots the input and output powers, percent excess power, and the Q pulse repetition rate. Output power is shown in blue, input power is shown in green, and excess is shown in red as a percentage. The proprietary repetition rate of the pulses is plotted without scale in turquoise.
For five days, excess power from the induced thermal reaction in nickel hydride averaged approximately 20% during times when the wave form at a given repetition rate was applied to the nickel hydride. Total applied power was above 450 watts. When the repetition rate was reduced excess power fell significantly, even though the input power rose. On seven different occasions when total applied power to the system was above 450 watts, and the repetition rate was reduced, excess power dropped from approximately 20% to close essentially 0%. Excess power returned quickly to approximately 20% when the repetition rate was restored to its original value.
This plot demonstrates a cause and effect relationship exists between the frequency of the applied waveform pulses (Q) and the amount of excess power produced in the test cell.
We have demonstrated that the nickel-light-water system is able to achieve more than 100% excess heat production (“2X”). Recent data shows that excess heat production was in the range of 110% for 2 hours.
We ran over 150 experiments using two different cell/calorimeter designs. Excess heat was always seen in experiments where Q pulses, which have been tuned to the resonance of the hydride conductors (“core”), are present. Using our open cell design it is now possible to get excess heat on demand using light water and hydrided nickel and palladium.
Pulsed power in the cathode is the preferred method to raise the energy of the Brillouin zones confining hydrogen nuclei in the metal lattice. We postulate that conversion of this energy to mass, results in the production of cold to ultra-cold neutrons. The removal of charge from the system by absorption of an electron by a proton makes a current pulse the preferred source of pulsed power because it provides electrons for capture.
In all cases, the application of a suitable Quantum Compression waveform enables active hydrided materials to produce excess power on demand without regard to the grain structure. While it is common for “gross loading” systems to work with some pieces of material and not others from the same batch. We believe that the Quantum Reactor technology caused every centimeter in all 15 meters of Pd wire to immediately produce excess heat while exposed to properly pulsed currents in light water. Quantum Reactor technology also allows for significant modulation of the power out of the cell.
Leveraging the results of the open cell experiments, the proprietary circuitry was attached to hydrided conductors in high-pressure, high-temperature systems for the sealed cell experiments.
The data taken from nickel-hydrogen system that was stimulated by our proprietary electronic inputs show that the thermal output is statistically significantly greater than the electrical input. Measurable and repeatable surplus thermal output is found in the nickel-hydrogen system when all other inputs to the cells remain constant. We have shown 100% excess energy and hope to achieve 200%, which would make the technology industrially useful. We also believe that the moderately elevated pressure and temperature environment of the pressurized cell may increase the probability for proton-electron captures, than the conditions at ambient temperature and pressure, because the electrolyte can be heated to over the boiling point of the electrolyte at atmospheric pressure. In addition to elevated temperature and pressure, the dimensions of the metal cathode inside the test cell, is much larger than what was used in the “open container”, first- round experiments.
We conclude that the reaction producing excess power in the nickel hydride is related to and very dependent upon the frequency of the Q pulses applied. We have thus demonstrated that there is a repeatable and measurable relationship between excess heat production from the stimulated nickel hydride in the test cell and the repetition rate of the applied electronic pulses. When the repetition rate is changed from the optimum frequency, excess power production ceases in the nickel hydride lattice. When that repetition rate is restored, significant excess power production resumes.
V. FUTURE WORK
We are looking closely at the experimental data from Experiment 5 and will use it to attempt to break through the next threshold 200% (“3X”) hopefully soon.
We have started to perform experiments in a third cell/calorimeter design in collaboration with SRI International that we believe will lead to more useful heat by operating at higher temperatures. We feel that the first commercial applications expected will be hydronic heating systems that require grid power and produce lower quality heat as well as higher quality heat systems that will be used to re-power existing dirty generation assets.
In addition to Pd and Ni, the Q-pulse reactor system should work with other transition metals that confine hydrogen nuclei sufficiently in a lattice to effect electron capture events.
A. Controlled Energy Capture Hypothesis
p + ~782KeV + e- » n + νe
(using energy for ultra-cold neutrons)
p + n » d + 2.2MeV
(making ultra-cold deuterons and energy)
d + (up to 3MeV) + e- » 2n + νe
(using energy to make di-neutron system)
d + n » T + 6.3MeV
(making tritum and energy)
2n + d » 4H + (?MeV)
3n + p » 4H + (?MeV)
(making short lived 4H nuclei and energy.)
4H » 4He + β¯+ νe + (17.06 to 20.6)MeV
(making helium and lots of energy)