There is much speculation on the nature of the cold fusion reaction.
What starts a nuclear reaction when hydrogen meets a tiny piece of metal?
Low-energy nuclear reactions LENRs do not occur often in Nature. We generally do not see spontaneous heat energy erupt before our eyes in ordinary material. It is a rare phenomenon and historically difficult to reproduce in the lab.
This is what has led Edmund Storms, a twenty-three year veteran of cold fusion research and formerly of Los Alamos National Laboratory, to speculate that the reaction cannot occur in ordinary material, but requires some special environment that operates independently of the larger metallic structure. He calls this special environment the Nuclear Active Environment NAE.
According to Storms, the NAE must be present for the energy-producing reaction to occur. His fullest survey of the field yet was summarized in the recently updated A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion May 2012. [visit] In it, Storms has pushed the idea of the NAE further by proposing a model.
To reproduce the excess heat effect between hydrogen and various metals maximally and efficiently, the recipe on how to perform the steps must be clearly stated. What elements must we put together to initiate the power-producing reaction on demand?
This recipe exists experimentally for a few lucky leaders in the race to commercialize a technology. Labs like Blacklight Power, Brillouin Energy, JET Energy, LENUCO, Leonardo Corporation and Praxen-Defkalion Green Technologies all have recipes to initiate LENR with a particular key element which also happens to be a trade secret. Ironically, each of these successful laboratory breakthroughs uses a different theoretical model as a guide.
If there is no one definitive theory that tells us how to make cold fusion work for all the varied forms of energy cells and transmutation generators that have been discovered, why not go back to basics and look at the source of all that’s known about these systems, the experimental data?
And that’s exactly what Edmund Storms did, deciding that “Identification of the NAE can start by finding a single condition that is present during all successful LENR studies.”
So what environmental factor appears in all successful experiments?
All successful experiments have some kind of rough, broken topology in common. Cracks, crevices, or microscopic mountains of material built-up on a surface that create tiny canyons at their feet are all present in some form or another.
Cracks can form through repeated stress. Most metals used in cold fusion show cracks, if not until after repeated loading and de-loading of hydrogen. Thus, Storms’ idea of the NAE is absence of material, like a crack.
The material deposited on the surface electrodes from the original style palladium-deuterium Pd-D electrolytic systems came from contaminants both in the Pyrex container and the heavy water salt solution. The stacking of contaminant particles makes ‘hollows’ where hydrogen (deuterium) could be become trapped.
Co-deposition techniques, whereby palladium and deuterium are purposefully deposited on a planar substrate have measured many transmutation elements. Upon examination, they are found to have many crooks and crannies, tiny caverns where hydrogen could have been trapped.
Thin-film electrodes have measured transmutation effects between the interfaces of the different layers, places that may enjoy a thin space for hydrogen to collect.
Nano-particle powders may be generating just the right-sized spaces between the tiny spheres to create the NAE.
Storms visualizes the cracks as, perhaps, long thin spaces where hydrogen can stack up on one another with an electron shielding the positive-charges of the proton nuclei. [see top]
With the electron screening the positive-charge, the protons can migrate closer than they normally would. Of this arrangement, Storms says “This is obviously not a conventional relationship.”
Given the NAE of a crack, Storms is proposing a three-step framework to describe the reaction.
Storms 3-Step Model
1. The nuclear active environment NAE is formed.
2. The NAE is populated with hydrogen and electrons.
3. Resonance initiates the nuclear mechanisms that cause fusion.
Through some endothermic process, meaning it requires energy to perform, the NAE of a crack or space is created first. Then, hydrogen is introduced to the space, perhaps through pressure. After the hydrogen is introduced to the NAE and it’s all stacked up, an energy is applied.
The energy may be introduced as a Brillouin Q-wave or an Energetics Superwave, or perhaps, as a Letts laser-light. Simply heating the cell can add enough energy too.
Whatever the source, the added energy makes the hydrogen dance back and forth in step with the frequency of the applied pulse.
When the energy applied is at the resonant frequency of the hydrogen/NAE combination, then the nuclear mechanism initiates. The resonant frequency is determined by the size, shape and mass of the H-stack. But like Ella Fitzgerald singing just the right note to make the glass shatter, the resonant frequency applied to the crack and its contents will increase the response exponentially.
But what is the nuclear mechanism that ensues? Storms leaves the nature of that open at this time, though he considers the idea of some special type of matter forming, like a Bose-Einstein Condensate BEC, a Lochon, hydrinos, or Rydberg matter.
Whatever mechanism occurs in the third step to set-off the mass-to-energy conversion, he believes it is initiated by resonance. Further, as the resonance process turns mass into energy following Einstein’s E=MC2 equivalence, the energy dissipates not explosively, but by a emitting series of photons, light-energy, that over a period of time, both disperse in the atomic lattice and are focused and emitted along the axis of the crack.
The energies of the photons will depend on the type of fusion reaction, which is itself dependent upon the ratio of hydrogen H and deuterium D in the NAE.
The electron which shielded the positive-charge of the protons in the stack performs double-duty as it is sucked into the fusion process, and occasionally, emitted back out as a Beta decay during the process in which tritium is formed.
Hydrogen, deuterium or tritium present at the ends of the stack would be available to interact with other elements, producing the observed transmutations.
In this model, energy can accumulate in the NAE through resonance without affecting the atomic bonds of the crystal lattice. It allows the nuclear mechanism to operate in an environment independently of the larger metallic matrix. There is no violation of the Laws of Thermodynamics.
Storms’ model gives testable claims along with a proposal on how to create the NAE and he’ll be working with colleagues in the coming months to test this hypothesis. Only experimental confirmation of a model will determine its usefulness in engineering energy-producing cells.
If Edmund Storms is right, and creating cold fusion is a matter of resonance, then the possibility exists that the transition metals need not be the only host to the reaction; any material could create cold fusion. All we need do is create the little space, add hydrogen, and apply the proper frequency, and there is clean, dense, portable, and next-generation energy technology that leaps above the hard-won trial-and-error achievements thus far, and the energy revolution we seek will be delivered.
Cold Fusion Now!
For more from Edmund Storms, go here.
28 Replies to “A Crack in the Code”
Is this telling me that Cold Fusion/LENR is all it’s cracked up to be because of crackpots… errr I meant to say crack spots? Sorry ’bout that.
Thanks for keeping us up to date on the exponetial growth of understanding in this field of science. Barely recognized and often misunderstood… a shining example of the Love of learning… cold fusion researchers are about to be able to say… See, I told ya so!!!
Extraordinary observations require extraordinary theories.
Einstein smiles when crystalized science shatters.
I am now banned from wiki-editing cold fusion because I pointed out that parroting opinions that cold fusion research is pathological science and opinions that the lack of criticism at cold fusion conferences allows the proliferaton of crackpots may be harmful to the art of this science. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Cold_fusion#POSSIBLE_SLANDER
A 90 day ban puts this at the end of summer. I suspect that will be a perfect time to begin editing the cold fusion article again. With warm regards and electrifying anticipation.
A variety of nano-scale terrains and topologies super-focus incident electromagnetic energy many thousands of times. Nano-crevices can form notch antennas. Nano-wires/filaments and nanoparticle colloids also can focus ambient e-m fields to extreme levels.
This could be coincidental, but it is a good place to start. A number of papers have mathematical models of nano-antenna efficiencies.
Maybe, also worth noting, (if I properly understood their papers), Brillouin’s Q-wave pulses do not damage the lattice structure. If so, maybe some crystal channeling and electron/proton wavefunction squeezing is occuring as described in –
“CHANNELING, SUPERFOCUSING, AND NUCLEAR REACTIONS”
In the ebook “Secrets of E-Cat,” (Consulente Energia Publisher, 145 pages, 68 illustrations, Pdf format, 7 €, http://www.consulente-energia.com/cold-fusion-book-secrets-e-cat-by-mario-menichella-secret-ecat-andrea-rossi-focardi-energy-catalyzer.html ) author Mario Menichella says:
“The probably better experimental work…carried out in Siena since the early Nineties, by a group of physicists composed by Sergio Focardi (University of Bologna), Francesco Piantelli (University of Siena), Roberto Habel (University of Cagliari), but it did not lead to a system capable of generating useful amount of excess energy for normal industrial or domestic applications. In Siena, in fact, the three scientists – using hydrogen and nickel as the two only “ingredients” of the reaction, plus an appropriate amount of heat supplied to the system – managed to get out a double thermal energy than the electrical energy provided in input.”
It sounds like Piantelli and Habel did not use a Q-wave or Superwave to get double the thermal energy.
BTW, I am much more interested in determining if it is hydrogen atoms turning into neutrons that powers the LENR Ni-H exothermic reaction.
Brad, I have read recently of experiments in transmutation that require only an exact temperature at which a “resonance” point is reached causing the weak and Coloumb forces to falter. There are also Miley’s experiments that yield heat simply from applying H2 under pressure to a lattice. Brian Ahern insists that it is a matter of granular size in the lattice powders. This was also noted in the Patterson Power Cell based on proprietary beads coated in nano films.
It is likely a whole new science is being revealed or disclosed finally. The human race is deserved of this knowledge – and others seem to agree.
Ruby you have probably seen this but it is well worth the post:
NASA LaRC has climbed aboard the LENR / cold fusion ship in a significant way. Dennis Bushnell released a written statement timed to coincide with Joe Zawodney’s new video. This indicates a coordinated government effort to introduce the idea of broad spectrum, low cost clean/green energy.
Yes, it is a crack in the code. One that has taken far too long in coming. Just as interesting as the science involved will be how to deal with those who have impeded progress in these life-saving technologies. Those who have done so – have much to fear. Self-serving solipsism is bad behavior in any species – especially those claiming higher intelligence.
Black Light Power VS Rossi eCat > Cold Fusion ?
I’m sure I’m not the first to mention the possibility of a proton-proton fusion reaction (that gives off a positron) happening in H-Ni systems.
P + P > D + positron + neutrino + 0.42MeV
I’m glad you mentioned our beloved Ella:
“Ella Fitzgerald singing just the right note to make the glass shatter,”
We could also note the swaying Washington Narrows suspension bridge, and the familiar child’s playground swing, each of these mechanical systems having swung at an increasing amplitude with each cycle that collapse occurs with great damage. As a boy, I suffered the effects of the swing gone wrong when “natural” resonance ejected me onto the ground with a marvellous thud (luckily, no broken parts, just a blubbering boy!)
In fact, most of the resonance events of which I’ve heard, have been about other non-LENR New Energy (“over-unity”) claims: “transformer”-type devices with not just one primary and one secondary winding, but sometimes with several coils, the testing of which resulted in increasing currents to the secondary output coils, currents which were “impossible” based on transformer theory, such that the devices melted to a lovely coppery mess, as one of my colleagues State-side reported to me on a device one of his acquaintances was replicating for him – you know, third party validation and all that! The resonant frequencies were arrived at accidently (sort of…), a sort of “window” of performance opportunity, as it were: the right frequency, the right pulse width, the right pulse amplitude, the right rest time between pulses, with each input pulse eventually arriving “in phase” – or nearly so – on top of a previous one, so that the output pulse (1/2 wave, I guess) goes out to the load or battery with one heck of a lot of output joules, far more than it takes to make it. I know I know! This contravenes the Laws of Thermodynamics. But so does LENR! But it happens, and the excess energy comes from *somewhere*, and I like many others, think it’s from the Quantum Vacuum!.
Though I have yet to hear of nasty results from HHO/Brown’s Gas mechanisms, I’ve heard that pulsing/pulsations/resonance is/are always involved to get super-efficient electrolysis of a water-based electrolyte, or just water alone, for more gas output from a system than theory tells us should be the case. (Conventional theory says lotsa loss!)
I will always keep watch for more LENR advances, and claimed advances in the other New Energy technologies as well.
For a much, much better world,
Storm’s hypothesis is really interesting and, I think, it is confirmed also by, for instance, experiments made by Cardone et al. in Italy, where you have “cold fusion” evidence applying very high pressure to stone materials.
So, what matters really seems to be micro fractures (or the like) and external “pressure”, no matter which is the material used for the lattice.
I have no reputation to defend so here goes.
Once apon a time I was working as a lab tech at the University of Rhodesia. We had a stack of shaking screens to separate sands into various sizes. It was made in Germany. The consensus of opinion among the learned professors around the tea table was that the screen was a dud. It did not work.
(Bear with me, I cannot shorten the tale.)
I reasoned that the particles had to spend time in contact with the screen to have any hope of falling through. The mistake that the professors were making was to not control the amplitude of the shaking correctly and as a consequence particles spent the majority of their time being tossed upwards and were floating.
By decreasing the amplitude I was able to get the particles to roll along the screen. This did the trick . The particles separated in no time at all. Magic.
Why the long tale?
If you consider hydrogen atoms as particles for the sake of this exercise and the electric field as analogueous to the gravity field of my screen model, then it seems to me that the direction of the harmonic waves has to be orientated co-planar to the surface of the cathode.
May I suggest that you try a cracked and then polished surface and fire the lazer along the surface of the plane.
In this manner the hydrogen atoms will spend a lot more time in contact with the cathode and will fill the cracks a lot quicker allowing the magic of Mr Bose and Einstein.
Memo: Stand well back. Pons and Fleishman inadvertantly achieved this condition and the experiment exploded.
Great story! I’m not a techie so I appreciate the lucid descriptions. Makes me feel like I’m starting to understand some of this CF stuff. Thanks Barry
How can you be so sure that CF is safe?
Twenty-three years of research has left these scientists strong and healthy. They are not dying of toxic contamination. If their hair is falling out, it’s from a healthy old age, not radiation sickness.
Radioactive materials are not used.
Carbon dioxide is not emitted.
These cells sit on their lab benches.
While it is always dangerous to work with hydrogen as a gas, and precautions must taken with nickel powders (you do not want to breathe that in to your body), the materials are cleaner, safer, and more robust than either fossil fuels or radioactive nuclear fuels.
We can never be 100% sure of safety, but this is darn close.
If CF was well understood, it would actually be science. It is not well documented and tested. It could be totally something else. It is Pathological ?
Hi glemm, I am putting together in one stop links for DoD Department of Defense reports, NASA, and various schools that have confirmed and are moving ahead with research in this fast-developing science which is just now emerging as a technology. I’m still working on it, but….if you are interested in seeing what federal entities support LENR, go here, scroll down.
Of course, they could all be wrong, but that is just too improbable. And ask, if there was a chance that this could save our asses with a clean abundant energy source to replace fossil fuels, wouldn’t we want to at least look into it?
Not, at the least, testing it is pathological
Looks like you have that backwards. Scientific progress if made by presenting a hypothesis and by experimentation proving or disproving that hypothesis. If it was well understood, what it would be is scientifically proven. Science by it very nature is the exploration of the unknown.
To Dr. Edmund Storms,You did a great job. Maybe you should give also aettntion to cold fusion patents or publications wherein alkali metal hydrides or deuterides play a role in producing negative ions of hydrogen or deuterium for lowering Coulomb repulsion in fusion or atom transmutation. I like to mention Matsushita EP0394980 patent application and PCT/US93/12541 published as WO94/16446 of the inventor DREXLER Jerome (priority date 7 January 1993). From the lattter document I quote: It is known that lithium reacts with hydrogen to form LiH, in which the hydrogen acts as the negative ion. From potassium hydride negative hydrogen ions (H-) can be set free at 400b0C.Negative hydrogen ions (also negative deuterium ions) can enter the Ni-nuclei on tunneling through their electron shell yielding atom transmutation transforming nickel into copper.The energy set free comes in my opinion from the diminishing rotation energy when free protons are captured by the nickel nucleus. For more information contact Ben at the e-Cat Site.
Actually they were not exposed to cold fusion at all. If they had a continuous reaction going on, they would have published and verified cold fusion by now.
Ruby, is there any published scientific journal articles that describe, test and support cold fusion in detail.
Glemm, please read up here. I don’t know your background, but it’s pretty technical…
Ruby, please refer to this PDF – JCMNS Volume 8.
(Finally, the scientific journal access for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) or cold fusion remains severely limited by the editors of refereed publications. This is all a lingering effect from the 1989 to 1990 reports from MIT, Caltech, and Harwell. A previous study concluded that the MIT calorimetric methodology was flawed and that this flawed MIT publication may be the single most widely quoted work used by the critics of cold fusion to dismiss the phenomena)
Here is the link for MIT and Cold Fusion A Special Report .pdf
Ruby, still don’t have proof or maybe just imagination.
The idea that emissions may occur along cracks was actually demonstrated by Ernest Klema and I at Tufts and The Air Force Laboratory a few years ago. We exposed very high-speed Polaroid film (either 3 or 4,000) to a cm-size piece of Palladium that had been in a glass chamber back-filled with Deuterium to about 0.1 atm and arced for several hours with an automobile ignition system using a conical Platinum electrode spaced about 5 mm from the rather flat Palladium surface. Immediately after removing the Palladium from that chamber it was laid right on top of the instant film pack for 2 hours and in a few cases the image that was produced consisted of closely-spaced spots clearly showing the shape of the Palladium but in additiion a few spots located several cm s away from the metal chunk. No image at all was observed for most samples that were subjected to the same treatment. Prior to placing the Palladium into the chamber it was heated in air to about 400 Centigrade.
Ruby not wishing to move off topic but it must be raesid that our students and children are being led by a scientific establishment that as with other areas, economics for example has brainwashed it’s members and the population to a degree of irrational denial and DOGMA worship that any clear thinking open-minded individuals that are left are driven to distraction.My simply mentioning UFO’s, the Placebo effect, Near Death Experiences, Telepathy Etc. Etc. is enough to send the average closed-minded Dogma controlled scientist into apoplexy.Like Cold Fusion these subjects and many more have a degree of Evidence that by any fair-minded assessment is sufficient to clearly warrant further processional, competent, unbiased research and investigation.Until the grownup members of the scientific community begin to openly research every scientific anomaly, freely and openly encouraging the young to use their brilliant minds on these exciting subjects and not irrationally following the closed-minded establishment religion of denial and Dogma then nothing in this World will improve.One only has to spend a small amount of time researching from source (not censored reports such as from Wiki-rubbish) a subject such as the Placebo Effect to discover the Fraud, misrepresentation, incompetence and stupidity of our scientific leaders and followers.Only the Rebels and free-minds ever eventually discover Truth outside Dogma and the young need freedom of thought to follow their noses without establishment barriers of biased peer-review and closed funding on subjects not allowed by the high priests giving commandments for the plebs to follow.Science must become SCIENCE, the investigation of ALL anomalies and areas of the natural World, with no exceptions.Cold Fusion would then be grasped with excitement and wonder by true scientists hungry for the TRUTH and only the TRUTH.
Add to this speculation natural muon flux. Muon catalysed fusion is a known process. There is a natural muon flux even at sea level. The devices in question may be capturing the natural muons.
Hey C, I hadn’t heard of this fellow G. Preparata. I will have to look him up.Excellent barkocgund thanks!I know what you mean about the military being involved in LENR research in the US. There are both services and disservices to that situation.On the one hand, they’ve provided the only federal funding that has kept several groups going over the past two decades. We’re grateful that they’ve released as much of their results as they have. On the other hand, it is sad to have this research confined to military circles.That’s why we exist to get knowledge of this science out into the public where more researchers will choose to get involved for the good of humanity and this whole planet! Even still, private companies doing this research are just as secretive due to intellectual property issues.It’s just a bumpy ride all around!
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