LENR-Spaceplane-1

NASA LENR Aircraft and Spaceplanes

It’s mind-boggling to imagine the numbers of people who have viewed the NARI Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aircraft Seedling Seminar by Doug Wells – people from companies serving the aerospace industries, to leaders in engineering and research. The seedling seminar is even being reported in aviation magazines worldwide. Wow!

Doug Wells Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aircraft [.pdf]

Doug Wells will also present a paper at the AIAA Aviation 2014 Conference, a Study Webinar by Marty Bradley available through the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and a paper was presented in January, at the 52nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting, by Robert A. McDonald from Cal Poly.

Thousands upon thousands of savvy people are now grasping that cold fusion is emerging as a source of clean energy beyond our most promising dreams, with the power to move humanity through our next evolution. With popular cold fusion/LENR science, we are on the verge of an epic technological advancement with the concurrent personal, social, economic, environmental, spiritual, and philosophical advancements.

With that change in energetics, the paradigm changes, and we begin building an ecologically sustainable society.

 “-given the truly massive-to-mind boggling benefits – solutions to climate, energy and the limitations that restrict the NASA Mission areas, all of them. The key to space exploration is energetics. The key to supersonic transports and neighbor-friendly personal fly/drive air vehicles is energetics, as simplex examples of the potential implications of this area of research.”
–Dennis Bushnell, Chief Scientist NASA Langley on the energetics of LENR.

Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aircraft Investigator
Doug Wells, NASA Langley Research Center

Purpose
The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential vehicle performance impact of applying the emergent Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) technology to aircraft propulsion systems.

LENR potentially has over 4,000 times the density of chemical energy with zero greenhouse gas or hydrocarbon emissions. This technology could enable the use of an abundance of inexpensive energy to remove active design constraints, leading to new aircraft designs with very low fuel consumption, low noise, and no emissions.

The objectives of this project are to gather as many perspectives as possible on how and where to use a very high density energy source for aircraft including the benefits arising from its application, explore the performance impacts to aircraft, and evaluate potential propulsion system concepts.

Background
LENR is a type of nuclear energy and is expected to be clean, safe, portable, scalable, and abundant. The expected benefits make it an ideal energy solution. When it is applied to aircraft, LENR removes the environmental impacts of fuel burn and emission from combustion. Excess energy could be used to reduce noise so that all three of NASA’s technology goals for future subsonic vehicles are either eliminated or addressed.

Furthermore, aviation impacts almost every part of our daily lives, civilian and military.

A revolutionary technology like LENR has the potential to completely change how businesses, military, and the country operate as a whole, giving a tremendous financial, tactical, and resource advantage to anyone that utilizes it in the most effective way.

High-density energy sources create some unique capabilities as well as challenges for integration into aircraft.

An LENR concept that has reported some success generates heat in a catalyst process that combines nickel metal (Ni) with hydrogen gas (H). The initial testing and theory show that radiation and radioisotopes are extremely short lived and can be easily shielded.

Although nuclear fission has been looked at for use in aircraft, LENR is different. LENR has a higher energy density and no radioactive by products.

Success of this research will provide a firm foundation for future research and investment for high-density energy source technology integration into aircraft.

FIVE EMERGENT EXAMPLES

NASA LENR Aircraft 2014 Seedling Technical Seminar
The Team

California Polytechnic State University

  • Dr Rob McDonald
  • Advanced Topics in Aircraft Design Course
  • Sponsored Research Project Team

NASA Glen Research Center

  • Jim Felder, Cris Snyder

NASA Langley Research Center

  • Bill Fredericks, Roger Lepsch, John Martin, Mark Moore, Doug Wells, Joe Zawodny

The Application of LENR to Synergistic Mission Capabilities
Submitted by Doug Wells for publication and presentation at the AIAA Aviation 2014 Conference. Date: 16 – 20 June 2014.
Location: Atlanta, Georgia. (we must wait to view it)

The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is the world’s largest technical society dedicated to the global aerospace profession.

Lessons Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR)
Study Webinar Recorded 18 December 2012 – Martin K. Bradley
Available at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Suite 500 – Reston, VA 20191-4344

Synopsis
This webinar summarizes the work accomplished for NASA by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team during a continuing two-phase study, which started in 2008. Results through February 2012 are reported.

In Phase I, the team completed the development of a future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation in 2030, selected baseline and advanced configurations, generated technology suites for each, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail including a high span strut braced wing concept, a gas turbine battery electric concept, and a hybrid wing body.

In Phase II, the study was extended to the N+4 2040 timeframe and considered the following additional technologies: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans, and advanced propellers.

Presenter
Dr. Marty Bradley is a Technical Fellow for The Boeing Company, working in the Boeing Research and Technology organization in Huntington Beach, California. For Boeing, he is the leader for a variety of projects related to green aircraft technologies, aviation environmental life cycle analysis, and propulsion integration for advanced technologies. Marty has 28-years of experience in vehicle design, propulsion integration, and technology studies for a wide variety of commercial and military aerospace applications. He has led and conducted projects for green aircraft design, alternative fuels, and environmental life cycle analysis (LCA).

Marty is the Principal Investigator for this NASA funded study looking at advanced technologies for future commercial aircraft, which will be discussed. Marty has a B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering, all from the University of Southern California.

LENR-Spaceplane-2-Parts-of-aircraftImpact of Advanced Energy Technologies on Aircraft Design
Robert A. McDonald, California Polytechnic State University
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Publication Date: 13-17 January 2014
Chapter DOI: 10.2514/6.2014-0538

The impact of low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) technology on the design of aircraft is examined. Energy conversion possibilities considered and a Brayton cycle engine with an LENR heat exchanger is selected.

Potential aerospace applications of LENR devices are discussed and a high altitude long endurance (HALE) unmanned ariel vehicle with multi-year endurance is conceptualized with primary focus on (LENR) energy management.

SpaceWorks Engineering Advanced Concepts Group
Key customers and partners are NASA, Air Force Research Laboratory, DARPA, JPL, Pratt Whitney a United Technologies Company, ULA United Launch Alliance, Orbital, IHI AeroSpace, National Institute of Aerospace, UDRI University of Dayton Research Institute, UTC Universal Technology Corporation, and SI Satrec Initiative.

LENR Spaceplanes
Advanced Propulsion System Concept Studies
Customer: NASA LaRC
Duration: 6 months
Date: 2009-2010

SpaceWorks conducted separate vehicle design studies evaluating the potential impact of two advanced propulsion system concepts under consideration by NASA Langley Research Center:

The first concept was an expendable multistage rocket vehicle which utilized an advanced Air-Augmented Rocket (AAR) engine. The effect of various rocket thrust augmentation ratios were identified the resulting vehicle design where compared against a traditional expendable rocket concept

The second concept leverage Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), a new form of energy generation being studied at NASA LaRC, to determine how to utilize an LENR-based propulsion system for space access. For this activity, two LENR-based rocket engine propulsion performance models where developed jointly by SpaceWorks and LaRC personnel.

The Complete NARI 2014 Seedling Seminars  (click people tab to view investigators)

The NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) presented a 6-day virtual technical seminar on February 19–21 and February 25–27, 2014 to showcase innovative concepts developed by NASA researchers, primarily featuring work from the Seedling Phase 2 (Round 1) and Seedling Phase 1 (Round 3) funds.

http://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/SeedlingWELLS.pdf

http://nari.arc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/SeedlingCOGAN.pdf

NARI awards the ARMD Seedling Fund grants to make deliberate investments in early-stage and potentially revolutionary aviation concepts and technologies that are aligned with NASA’s mission. These grants go to civil servant-led teams at NASA Research Centers. This seminar was an opportunity for members of the NASA aeronautics community to view the results of this research and see how these innovative concepts might complement and benefit their work and projects across the agency. The results were presented in 33 talks: 30 minutes for each presentation and 10 minutes for discussion and questions. Each session featured a special guest NASA leader as Keynote Speaker and Moderator.

The NASA seminar was free and open to all. Watch the archive and download the slides.

Amazing and fantastic!

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BUILDING AN ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY

XXXVII INDIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE CONGRESS – December 27-31, 2013
Published by Indian Academy of Social Sciences – 380 page pdf
Iswar Saran Ashram Campus, Allahabad 211004, INDIA
Telefax: 0532-2544170, 2544245

Website: www.issaindia.org.in

Here is a small yet important part of their wonderful work. Enjoy.

“Why Science is Social”

What is social?
An act or result of an act involving two or more than two individuals is called social. Since science is produced by two or more than two individuals, it is social. In other words basic character of science is social.

What does it mean?
It means that very notion of science is social. It means the notions of verify-ability and repeatability, reliability, validity, precision, exactness, isomorphism, measurement, methods, hypothesis, inference and theory are social notions. It means there is close connection between society and science and between social conditions and science. As humans and their societies develop so does science.

It also means that proclivity of all humans to social influence and their inability to free themselves wholly from the social and personal prejudices tend to influence objectivity of science. It means science is ‘primitive’ to some extent and ‘precious’ to large extent. It is ‘primitive’ to some extent because it is never cent percent objective. It is, ‘precious’ to a large extent because there is no other system of better objective knowledge.

What is its implication?
It implies that the division of science between science and social science is no longer correct. Today there is no dichotomy between Nature, humans and society or between living matter and non-living matter. Through long and arduous pursuits humans discovered their origin and connections with Nature. Today the term Nature connotes all non-living and living objects including humans and their societies. The 18th century notion of Nature and science or basic science is no longer a valid notion. It might be convenient to fragment science into various subcategories for the sake of study, but it will not serve its social purpose if it is not put together.

Science of Nature, therefore, is necessary for modern humans and their societies. Science of Humans and their societies is integral to the science of Nature. It also means that science is never eternal or static. All objects/things are in constant motion. Since all objects/things keep on changing so does their science. Also, each object is divisible into two because of mutually opposite attributes inherent in it. That is to say, nature of nature, be it non-living or living is dialectical. There is nothing like linearity in Nature.

Science, therefore, is dialectical and not linear. The need for verification and repetition makes science authority free. There is no place for authority in science. Any one and every one enjoys the right to challenge science. Democracy, therefore, is necessary for science. Science grows in democratic conditions and dies in undemocratic or authoritarian conditions.

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A bit of Prose

REAL ENERGY

Not so far in the near distant future…

The next generation in fact.

Will look back at our generation as the last of the fire era.

And know the term energy shortage was…

A term for unenlightened minds.

gbgoble2009

 

19 thoughts on “NASA LENR Aircraft and Spaceplanes”

  1. Thanks Greg.
    Of cause it is not peer reviewed. The peers refuse to review it. Notice the last speaker damning with faint praise?
    .
    Let us put this into the contemporary picture.
    The USA depends on the petro-dollar. Big oil wants to frac Europe. Russia enjoys a monopoly on gas.They can use it to bring Europe to heel.
    The USA and Russia are facing off over in the Ukraine. Against the USA and NATO are arraigned Russia, China and India. Where would Pakistan stand? (Drone strikes ring a bell?), South Africa, Brazil And anyone else who wants something other than “promises to pay” for their exports.
    Why has everyone got it in for the USA? They only want to bring democracy!
    .
    So is the USA going to risk WW3 to defend Big Oil? And in order to save Big Oil they are going to have to use Cold Fusion in the war or be thrashed. (Assuming it is winnable givent the Nukes.)
    And If they did they would doom Big Oil and the Petro-Dollar and the parasitic Banks, because they would not be able to ignore CF any more.
    .
    Checkmate.
    _________

    1. The point is this technology works. It has advanced from the cutting edge research phase (unknown and unsure) into the engineering phase (we don’t know how we’re doing it yet we’re doing it) while quickly moving into the applied and advanced engineering phase; the latter in a compressed time frame following a well known knowledge (learning) logarithmic curve.
      .
      Commercialization and takeover by really cheap and dense clean energy…. is eminent.
      .
      Patents granted stand being proven, or lose to the test of time.
      .
      Mitsubishi LENR Patent Application – Filed 2001 Granted 2013
      .
      Nuclide Transmutation Device and Nuclide Transmutation Method
      .
      http://www.google.com/patents/EP1202290B1?cl=en&dq=Nuclide+transmutation+device+and+nuclide+transmutation+method+EP+1202290+B1&hl=en&sa=X&ei=vnQNU-KoEeHl2AXdpICICQ&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAA
      .

      Iwamura, Y., T. Itoh, and M. Sakano Iwamura, Y., T. Itoh, and M. Sakano, 2002, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.: U.S.A.
      .
      The present invention produces nuclide transmutation using a relatively small-scale device. The device that produces nuclide transmutation comprises a structure body that is substantially plate shaped and made of palladium (Pd) or palladium alloy, or another metal that absorbs hydrogen (for example, Ti) or an alloy thereof, and a material that undergoes nuclide transmutation laminated on one surface among the two surfaces of this structure body.
      .
      The one surface side of the structure body, for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is high due to pressure or electrolysis and the like, and the other surface side, for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is low due to vacuum exhausting and the like, and thereby, a flow of deuterium in the structure body is produced, and nuclide transmutation is carried out by a reaction between the deuterium and the material that undergoes nuclide transmutation.

      1. PPS
        Here is the original Papp engine demo. See how well he can control the speed. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nKfYpVbDrOs I think I understand why it has no cooling system. It has a fixed amount gas (like a refrigerator). So after the initial spark that created some plasma the gas expands. As the gas expands and does mechanical work it must necessarily cool (an adiabatic expansion). I guess he controls the speed with the size of the spark. Maybe one of these toy Wankel engines could be modified to test the concept. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zb_J-XrTbiY

          1. This isn’t very likely but could this be happening when Klostermann and Sanchez use air:
            O(16) + O(16) > Si(28) + He(4) 9.59 MeV
            O(16) + O(17) > Si(29) + He(4) 13.92 MeV
            O(16) + O(18) > Si(30) + He(4) 16.49 MeV
            N(14) + N(14) > Mg(24) + He(4) 17.24 MeV
            N(14) + N(14) > Mg(24) + He(4) 17.24 MeV
            N(14) + N(15) > Mg(25) + He(4) 13.73 MeV

        1. PS
          It looks like the toy engine could be a Wankel Diesel engine (i.e. no spark plug). You’d have to modify a regular Wankel engine.

          1. The Papp engine is dead and buried. It has been proven that there is no net energy gain from the expansion of inert gases no matter what the combination.
            Papp has no place in a world of proven science. This is about LENR…

            1. A must read for a clear perspective on the issue…
              .
              The Mystery and Legacy of Joseph Papp’s Noble Gas Engine – Eugene F. Mallove
              Infinite Energy Magazine – Issue 51 – http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue51/papp.html
              .
              “If you thought that the saga of cold fusion was bizarre, labyrinthian, and astonishing with its mother-lode of unexpected findings— from nuclear-scale excess heat to the rebirth of alchemy in low-energy nuclear transmutation, discoveries alternately persecuted or ignored by the scientific establishment— the cold fusion adventure doesn’t hold a nuclear candle to the story of Joseph Papp and his noble gas engine. The Papp engine saga seems to have had its roots in the 1950s, but it only came into public view in 1968. And, strangely enough, there may well be an underlying physics that links elements of the two stories and their profoundly heretical science. Pathological skeptics of cold fusion— and perhaps some cold fusion researchers— may laugh at or recoil from this synthesis, but they will be treading on thin ice.
              .
              But here is the ultimate triumph of the Papp engine: Today, ongoing research in the United States— totally independent of Papp and his former financial interests— has proved conclusively that noble gases, electrically triggered in various ways, can indeed explode with fantastic violence and energy release— melting metal parts and pushing pistons with large pressure pulses.
              .
              Some of the people performing this work, or who have evaluated it, are from the cold fusion field, others are experienced plasma physicists. Some will allow their names to be revealed, while others in senior positions at major research institutions must remain anonymous for now. I am confident, however, that these scientists will eventually “go public.”

            2. Recently I learned that nanoplasmonics is the sister field to LENR, Martin Fleischmann has credit for works initiating each of these arts of science.

              EARLY SURFACE PLASMARONS

              “The Discovery of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering”
              A. James McQuillan* – Department of Chemistry, University of OtagoDunedin 9054, New Zealand *Corresponding author (jmcquillan@chemistry.otago.ac.nz)

              http://rsnr.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/63/1/105.full

              This article contains a personal account of the sequence of events leading to the first observation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in 1973 in the Chemistry Department at Southampton University. The article begins with a concise explanation of SERS as understood today and ends with further developments that were stimulated by the discovery of SERS.

              The first paper reporting the phenomenon was by Martin Fleischmann, Hendra and McQuillan6 in 1974, who observed surprisingly strong and potential-dependent Raman signals from pyridine adsorbed on a silver electrode that had been electrochemically roughened in potassium chloride aqueous electrolyte.

              The discovery period

              After a camping trip with my wife through European countries for several weeks in August, I returned to the experiments. On 30 August, after an afternoon and evening on the Cary (which was shared by a range of people over several groups), I noted ‘quite startling success’. In this case it was with the silver electrode in aqueous 0.05 mol dm−3 pyridine containing 0.1 mol dm−3 KCl using less than 100 mW of the 5145 Å laser line.

              The pyridine concentration was chosen at 0.05 mol dm−3 so that the solution contribution to the Raman signal from near the surface would be small, while at the same time there were observable adsorption/desorption peaks in the cyclic voltammograms.

              The next page of my notes is pretty bare of details, probably reflecting the excitement from the results, but the following was noted: ‘On electrode with no applied potential, bands at 1008 (2.4) broad, 1026 (3.0), and 1037 cm−1 (4.0), getting about 1000 counts s−1 on 1037 cm−1 band at 2 cm−1 slits—very sensitive.’

              A subsequent afternoon and evening run of experiments on 4 September with the same system led to the results that were in due course reported in the 1974 paper in Chemical Physics Letters. The electrode roughening was performed in situ by cycling at 0.5 V s−1 between 0.3 V and +0.2 V (saturated calomel electrode as reference). I noted, ‘At 90 mW of 5145 Å got an incredible ∼5000 counts s−1 on the 1025 cm−1 band’.

              At that stage, from the spectra and the dependence on potential, it seemed that the bands at 1008 and 1037 cm−1 were due to physisorbed pyridine, whereas that at 1025 cm−1 was from some chemisorbed species. We were well aware of the unusually large observed signals, and this was puzzling and unexplained.

              Was an insoluble compound being formed at the surface that was more soluble on reduction?

              Having a look over the wider spectrum we found that there were also adsorbed pyridine bands in the regions around 3060, 1210 and 650 cm−1 and a broad band peaking at 235 cm−1. I noted, ‘The first band of interest is the Ag-Py 235 cm−1 metal-ligand vibration. This appears to correlate with the 1025 cm−1 band.’

              I gave a brief report of our observations to the Faraday Discussion on Intermediates in Electrochemical Reactions at Oxford on 19 September.17 Having established reasonable reproducibility with the Ag/pyridine system, we sought to establish the generality of the phenomenon in conducting experiments on silver with collidine, 3- and 4-methyl pyridine, and other amines as well as Pt/benzene. There were some encouraging signs for the rather insoluble collidine but nothing from the Pt/benzene system.

              Martin, Pat and I met periodically to discuss the results and strategy.

              These were lively meetings, rich with ideas, and a good deal of sifting was required at the end to sort out the best way forward.

              We had one such meeting on 17 October from the morning through to after lunch, and Martin came up with the idea that the shifts in the physisorbed pyridine bands with potential might be due to electrode-surface water reorientation as the surface charge changes sign.

              By early December, we had not found any major new experimental results, in spite of a number of ideas having been pursued, and began putting a paper together for Chemical Physics Letters. This was finally sent to David Buckingham on 21 February 1974 after considerable discussion over unresolved aspects, such as the unusually high observed Raman intensities. In the end no comment was included on the intensities.

              The response from David Buckingham less than a week later was to say that the paper had been accepted and that ‘you appear to have found an interesting phenomenon’.

  2. So NASA really needs a slide to show scientists what the parts of a plane are and what those parts do? Really? Does anyone else think that’s strange?

    And what’s an “unmanned ariel vehicle?”

    Wow.

  3. I sincerely pleased that where that on base of the cold fusion nucleus syntheses already plan future his(its) using – a plane. in Russia cold fusion nucleus syntheses is considered by pseudoscience and any publications to this subjects are blocked academician of the science Russia. however me while it manages to publish in my book “Vihrony” physical bases of this phenomena by means of variable magnetic and gravitation monopoles. the opened possibilities allow not only to produce the additional energy for count of the fission of the internal energy of the convertor, but also reveal the secret an L. de Broyl “fur coats” moving микрочастиц and condensed klusters material and, in particular, secret of the effect Janibecova. this will allow not only to do new plane, but and cosmik it. Doctor Shadrin A.A.

  4. We have yet to develop a LENR powered automobile and yet we are off on a quest to put a LENR into an airplane?? I find this to be theoretical at best. Consistent LENR results from a commercial reactor would assuage my doubts about the viability of such a scheme. I would like to see a LENR powering a house before I would put it into a moving object flying at 10,000 meters.

    1. I would like to see LENR powering a house as well. We may see battle platforms powered by LENR well before that. The atom bomb was deployed before nuclear powered homes.
      .
      Consider that NASA, DARPA, and SPAWAR, have been doing a good job (as they all should). Stated mission of each is to ensure that the US maintains technological superiority of energy applications (like landing on the moon). Nuclear holds emminence i.e. atom bomb, nuclear power subs, deep space probes, Manhattan Project, etc.
      .
      Quote from the Defence Intelligence Agency, which reports to the President and Joint Chiefs of Staff,
      .
      “LENR will be a greater transformation of the battlefield than the conversion from horses to gasoline”
      .
      Future Strategic Issues/Future Warfare [Circa 2025] Dennis Bushnell – http://fedgeno.com/documents/future-strategic-issues-and-warfare.pdf
      .
      Yes, I agree. Our homes and cars should be powered by the energetics of nuclear LENR, before powering battleplatforms and weapons. Our opinion does not matter to the military industrial oil conglomerates.
      .
      Thank You

  5. Greg, You have done a bang up job. You might shine a little brighter light on the space plane business. It seems as if they have tipped their hand. Good work bud. Why hasn’t 60 Minutes done a piece on the seedling 2014 spaceplanes? Oooooooh!

    Paul

  6. A must read for a clear perspective on the issue…
    .
    “The Mystery and Legacy of Joseph Papp’s Noble Gas Engine” Eugene F. Mallove
    Infinite Energy Magazine – Issue 51 – http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue51/papp.html
    .
    If you thought that the saga of cold fusion was bizarre, labyrinthian, and astonishing with its mother-lode of unexpected findings— from nuclear-scale excess heat to the rebirth of alchemy in low-energy nuclear transmutation, discoveries alternately persecuted or ignored by the scientific establishment— the cold fusion adventure doesn’t hold a nuclear candle to the story of Joseph Papp and his noble gas engine. The Papp engine saga seems to have had its roots in the 1950s, but it only came into public view in 1968. And, strangely enough, there may well be an underlying physics that links elements of the two stories and their profoundly heretical science. Pathological skeptics of cold fusion— and perhaps some cold fusion researchers— may laugh at or recoil from this synthesis, but they will be treading on thin ice.
    .
    But here is the ultimate triumph of the Papp engine: Today, ongoing research in the United States— totally independent of Papp and his former financial interests— has proved conclusively that noble gases, electrically triggered in various ways, can indeed explode with fantastic violence and energy release— melting metal parts and pushing pistons with large pressure pulses. Some of the people performing this work, or who have evaluated it, are from the cold fusion field, others are experienced plasma physicists.”

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