Title-Navy-patent-2

NAVY LENR Patent Granted – Transmutes Radioactive Waste

This U.S. Navy patent transmutes radioactive elements into less harmful elements through a benign “cold fusion” low energy nuclear reaction process. The patent was granted April 16, 2013 for a device and method that shortens the half-life of radioactive materials by increasing their rate of emissions. The process creates high pressure steam for the turbines eliminating the need for refueling of existing nuclear reactor cores.

I took a look at the U.S. Navy SPAWAR technology transfer site.

The search I made on July 9th, 2013, yielded this posted July 3rd, 2013 by the U.S Navy SPAWAR Technology Transfer folks.

The U.S. Navy LENR patent is listed under Physical Chemistry. Oddly enough, it is not listed under Radiation and Nuclear Chemistry.

This technology is now available for licensing purchase here.

Physical Chemistry

8419919: “System and Method for Generating Particles”

SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific – Technology Transfer

  • SSC Pacific currently has over 600 pieces of intellectual property (patents, patent applications, and Navy invention disclosures). Many of these properties are available for licensing through Patent License Agreements (PLAs).

  • PLAs allow companies to commercially exploit SSC Pacific-developed technology. Royalty rights, legal rights, and other terms and conditions on the use of the technology are negotiated by the company and SSC Pacific. The licensee gains the technical knowledge and financial benefits of the Government intellectual property. SSC Pacific retains the rights to use the technology for Government purposes. 

  • Licensees must complete and submit an Application for License to Practice Invention (pdf) and a commercialization plan (in essence, a business plan). These two items are a statutory requirement to license SSC Pacific technologies. If submitting the application and commercialization plan together, many of the answers on the application can refer back to the commercialization plan.

  • PLAs can be partially exclusive or nonexclusive. The partially exclusive license agreement is, in essence, an exclusive license agreement with the exception of the Government having rights. See the SSC Pacific Partially Exclusive PLA Template (pdf) for more information on what a partially exclusive PLA entails. Licensees may work with employees of SSC Pacific to further develop or test the technology through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). (link)

  • Visit our technologies page (link)  to browse/search SSC Pacific technologies available for licensing or contact us (here) for more information.

In light of the continuing radioactive disasters at Fukushima and at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation facility. In light of the danger of nuclear reactors and the on site storage of spent fuel rods. In order to bring an end to nuclear fuel use. This Navy LENR technology, research and applied engineering, should be fast tracked and brought into the international field for further development. Licensing agreements for use of this technology to be distributed widely. Environmental remediation and avoidance of nuclear catastrophes is our foremost priority.

Studying the patent, I can not help but observe that this is an advanced LENR concept. The Navy has been working on this for quite some time. The patent was filed in 2007. We get to view it six years later. Now that this publicly funded research work is finally seen, it should be brought into the spotlight of the world stage immediately.

International and National lobby groups will be formed to do so.

Demand It from the Navy

COLD FUSION NOW! 

System and Method for Generating Particles – US8419919 B1

United States Navy Patent

Cold Fusion LENR Energy

Publication number – US8419919 B1

  • Publication type – Grant

  • Application number – 11/859,499

  • Publication date – Apr 16, 2013

  • Filing date – Sep 21, 2007

Inventors

Original Assignee

  • The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy

  • And Jwk International Corporation – see (wikicorp) or (company link)

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SOME EMBODIMENTS

  • Particles are generated from the application of method. As used herein, the term “generated” is used to refer to the forming of particles through a process involving chemical and, depending upon the substrate, magnetic interaction.

  • Examples of the types of particles generated and detected may include, but are not limited to: alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, energetic protons, deuterons, tritons, and neutrons. The particles generated by the implementations of method may have various applications.

  • For example, the generated particles may be captured by other nuclei to create new elements, may be used to remediate nuclear waste, may be used to create strategic materials, or may be used to treat cancerous tumors.

  • As an example there are some sites that have groundwater that is contaminated with radionuclides, such as technetium, Tc-99. The particles emitted by electrochemical cell may be absorbed by the radionuclide, Tc-99 via neutron capture, transmuting it to Tc-100 with a half life of 15.8 seconds to Ru-100, which is stable where the reaction is shown by 99Tc43(n,γ)100Tc43 and the 100Tc43 β− decays to 100Ru44 with a half-life of 15.8 seconds.

RELATED POSTS

E- Cat World article April 23, 2013

USPTO Grants Patent for System for ‘Generating Particles’

Follow Navy LENR part II

“Transmutes Radioactive Wastes Now U.S. Navy and LENR Energy”

Includes U.S. Navy LENR technology patent filed in Europe

A LENR Hybrid Fusion Fission Reactor

The Global Energy Corporation GeNie Reactor

Advantages of the embodiment of the invention:

  • [014] It may be an advantage of one or more of the embodiments of the invention to provide a safer nuclear reactor.

  • [015] Another advantage of one or more of the embodiments may be to provide a nuclear reactor with an internal source of fast neutrons.

  • [016] Another advantage of one or more of the embodiments may be to provide a nuclear reactor that operates with fertile or fissile fuel.

  • [017] A further advantage of one or more of the embodiments may be to provide a nuclear reactor that consumes its own nuclear waste products.

  • [018] A further advantage of one or more of the embodiments may be to provide a means to fission spent fuel rods.

  • [019] Yet another advantage of one or more of the embodiments may be to co-generate heat while consuming nuclear fission products and unspent nuclear fuel.

  • [020] Still yet another advantage of one or more of the embodiments may be to co-generate power from a conventional steam/water cycle

  • [021] Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following descriptions, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein, by way of illustration and example, an embodiment of the present invention is disclosed.

Follow Navy LENR part III

“Energy Shortage – LENR Cold Fusion – Navy Guam”

  • Presented MONDAY, 13  FEB  2012

  • THE Consolidated Commission on Utilities and the Guam Power Authority are investigating a new type of “generation five” nuclear power generator – one that could potentially reduce power costs for Guam ratepayers by half or more.

  • The Variety has learned Dr. Jay W. Khim, CEO of Global Energy Corp. (GEC) based in Annandale, Va., made a presentation to the utilities commission, GPA officials and Navy engineers last month and will make another tomorrow afternoon.

  • CCU member Eloy Hara, who says he is “spearheading” the project on behalf of GEC, told Variety: “After the presentation that Dr. Khim gave to the CCU and the Guam power management team, and almost an hour-long discussion afterward … we were all awed by the technology.

Follow Navy LENR part IV

“Mineta, Davis, Carlucci Global Energy Corporation LENR Navy Guam”

“You have to change the basic science of nuclear power,” Khim explained. “We’ve been working with the U.S. Navy for about 22 years and the basic science phase is now over.

Now we’re going into commercial development, which the Navy is not going to do.” But Khim says the science has been repeatedly duplicated by the Navy, and has been proven, recognized and published.

Officials of the Navy on Guam, including Capt. John V. Heckmann Jr., CO of Naval Facilities and a professional engineer, attended the GEC briefing.

The GEC board of directors, Khim says, includes some well-known Washington D.C. Players, including former Secretary of Defense Frank Carlucci, former Congressman and Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta, and former U.S. Congressman Tom Davis, among others.

IN LIGHT OF THIS The Cold Fusion Now

LOVE IN SCIENCE AWARD

Goes to

Edward Esko

Quantum Rabbit

Infinite Energy Magazine

And the New Energy Foundation

LENR-Induced Transmutation of Nuclear Waste

INFINITE ENERGY • ISSUE 104 • JULY/AUGUST 2012

 

Edward Esko

  • Abstract —

  • Quantum Rabbit (QR) research on the low-energy fusion and fission (low-energy nuclear reactions, or LENR) of various elements indicates possible pathways for applying that process to reducing nuclear materials.

  • In a New Energy Foundation (NEF)-funded test conducted at Quantum Rabbit lab in Owls Head, Maine, QR researchers initiated a possible low-energy fission reaction in which 204Pb fissioned into 7 Li and 197Au (204Pb → 7 Li + 197Au).1

  • This reaction may have been triggered by a low-energy fusion reaction in which 7 Li fused with 32S to form 39K (7 Li + 32S →19K).

  • These results confirmed earlier findings showing apparent low-energy fusion and fission reactions.2 Moreover, subsequent research with boron indicates apparent low-energy fusion reactions in which boron fuses with oxygen to form aluminum and with sulfur to form scandium.3

  • At the same time, the QR group has achieved what appear to be low-energy transmutations of carbon using carbon-arc under vacuum and in open air.4

  • The research group at QR believes these processes can be adapted to accelerate the natural decay cycle of uranium-235, plutonium-239, radium-226 and the fission products cesium-137, iodine-129, technetium-99 and strontium-90 with the long-term potential of reducing the threat posed by radioactive isotopes to human health and the environment.

NAVY LENR Summary

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SOME EMBODIMENTS

  • FIG. 1 shows a flow chart of an implementation of a method for generating particles 10. One implementation of method 10 may utilize an electrochemical cell 100 as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. As such, method 10 will be discussed with reference to electrochemical cell 100. Method 10 may be performed at conditions of ambient temperature and standard atmospheric pressure. Method 10 may begin at step 20, where a current may be supplied to the electrodes of an electrochemical cell according to a first charging profile. For example, step 20 may involve supplying current to the positive electrode, anode 130, and the negative electrode, cathode 132, of electrochemical cell 100. Current may be supplied to anode 130 and cathode 132 by connecting a galvanostat/potentiostat 140 to anode 130 and cathode 132. Step 20 is discussed in further detail with regard to FIG. 2. Following step 20, method 10 may proceed to step 30. Step 30 may involve maintaining a generally constant current between the positive and negative electrodes during the first charging profile such that deposition of metal 172 on the cathode occurs in the presence of evolving deuterium gas during electrolysis of an electrolytic solution. As an example, step 30 may involve maintaining a generally constant current between the anode 130 and cathode 132 during the first charging profile. Maintaining a generally constant current serves to ensure that deposition of metal 172 that substantially absorbs deuterium on cathode 132 occurs in the presence of evolving deuterium gas 174 during electrolysis of electrolytic solution 170 (see FIG. 5). A generally constant current may be defined as current that is stable, but that may have minor fluctuations. Step 30 may be performed by connecting a galvanostat/potentiostat 140 to anode 130 and cathode 132.
  • Method 10 may next proceed to step 40, where electrochemical cell 100 may be exposed to an external field, such as a magnetic field. For example, step 40 may be performed by positioning magnets 160 and 162 opposite one another on opposing sides of electrochemical cell 100 (see FIGS. 4 and 5). Step 40 may occur during the deposition of the metal on the cathode. In other embodiments, step 40 may occur after the termination of the deposition of the metal on the cathode. The determination that the deposition of the metal on the cathode has terminated may be made by a visual inspection that the plating solution within electrolytic solution 170 has turned from a red-brown color to clear. The plating solution turns clear when metal has all been plated onto cathode 132. Method 10 may then proceed to step 50, where a current may be supplied to the electrodes according to a second charging profile during the exposure of the electrochemical cell to the external field. For example, step 50 may involve using a power source to supply a current to anode 130 and cathode 132 according to a second charging profile during the exposure of electrochemical cell 100 to an external magnetic field (not shown).
  • Particles are generated from the application of method 10. As used herein, the term “generated” is used to refer to the forming of particles through a process involving chemical and, depending upon the substrate, magnetic interaction. Examples of the types of particles generated and detected may include, but are not limited to: alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, energetic protons, deuterons, tritons, and neutrons. The particles generated by the implementations of method 10 may have various applications.
  • Government DOE control of LENR since 1989. 

  • Technology quietly announced July 3rd, 2013.

  • When few would be watching.

  • Years before 2007… They knew of LENR nuclear remediation. 

  • We were not allowed to have this knowledge

  • They did not share it. They hid it.

  • A Low key Manhattan Project – Few research papers.

  • U.S. Patent sequestered for almost six years.

  • No SPAWAR ICCF presentation of nuclear waste remediation.

  • No SPAWAR presentation of LENR nuclear waste remediation at THE ASME – ICEM2013 15th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT. 

  • U.S. LENR reactor patent was quietly filed in Europe 2008. 

  • Company attempted to quietly launch  in Guam 2012.

  • GEC pitched it as a fast breeder reactor. No mention of LENR Technology or Breakthrough Cold Fusion Science.

  • Even more evidence of covert acts and collusion.

  • Technology listed as physical chemistry, not as a nuclear technology.

  • 2112 GeNie presentation in Guam.  

  • 2012 SPAWAR ICCF presentation.

  • Compare the two. No mention of GeNie at ICCF 2012.

  • GeNie LOW COST Guam Powerplant. 50MW – $250 million

  • Guam reactor to be fueled with fresh uranium.

  • Not transmuting nuclear waste.

  • Not ending nuclear reactor refueling.

  • No presentation planned for 2013 ICCF.

  • COLD FUSION NOW !!

  • Remediation of nuclear waste NOW!!

  • End refueling of nuclear reactors NOW!!

  • Lower our risk factor for nuclear catastrophes NOW!!

  • This technology was hidden!

  • Absolutely without a doubt!

  • For example, the generated particles may be captured by other nuclei to create new elements, may be used to remediate nuclear waste, may be used to create strategic materials, or may be used to treat cancerous tumors.

  • As an example there are some sites that have groundwater that is contaminated with radionuclides, such as technetium, Tc-99.

  • The particles emitted by electrochemical cell 100 may be absorbed by the radionuclide, Tc-99 via neutron capture, transmuting it to Tc-100 with a half life of 15.8 seconds to Ru-100, which is stable where the reaction is shown by .sup.99Tc.sub.43(n,.gamma.).sup.100Tc.sub.43 and the .sup.100Tc.sub.43 .beta..sup.- decays to .sup.100Ru.sub.44 with a half-life of 15.8 seconds.

  • FIG. 2 shows a flow chart of an implementation of step 20 of method 10. Step 20 may include more than one current level and more than one time period, wherein each of the current levels is supplied across the anode and the cathode for one of the time periods. Step 20 may be performed to assure good adherence of the palladium, a deuterium absorbing metal, to cathode 132, which may be a wire having a length of 2 cm and a diameter of 0.5 cm. Step 20 may involve low current densities for adhering the palladium to cathode 132. As an example, step 20 may begin at step 22, where a reducing current of 100 .mu.A may be supplied to the anode and cathode for a time period of about twenty-four hours. Next, step 24 may involve supplying a reducing current of 200 .mu.A to anode 130 and cathode 132 for a time period of about forty-eight hours. Step 20 may then proceed to step 26, where a reducing current of 500 .mu.A may be supplied to anode 130 and cathode 132 until the completion of the deposition process. The completion of the deposition process will occur when the plating solution appears clear as described above. As an example, the amount of time required for the completion of the deposition process may be between approximately 3 and 7 days, depending upon the surface area of cathode 132 and the first charging profile used.
  • As current is applied, Pd is deposited on the cathode. Electrochemical reactions occurring at the cathode include: Pd.sup.2++2e.sup.-Pd.sup.0 D.sub.2O+e.sup.-D.sup.0.+-.OD.sup.- (Eq. 1) Once formed, the D.sup.0 is either absorbed by the Pd or binds to another D.sup.0 to form a deuterium molecule, D.sub.2. At standard temperature and pressure, D.sub.2 is a gas. The result is that metallic Pd is deposited on the cathode in the presence of evolving D.sub.2.
  • FIG. 3 illustrates a flow chart of an implementation of step 50 of method 10. Step 50 may be performed to load metal 172 on cathode 132 with deuterium. In one embodiment, step 50 may involve more than one current levels and more than one time periods, wherein each of the current levels is supplied across the anode and the cathode for one of the time periods. In one embodiment, step 50 may involve levels of increasing current density to load the palladium lattice with deuterium such that the ratio of deuterium to palladium is .gtoreq.1. As an example, one implementation of step 50 may begin at step 52, where a current of 1 mA is supplied to anode 130 and cathode 132 for a time period of about two hours. Next, step 54 may involve supplying a current of 2 mA to anode 130 and cathode 132 for a time period of about six hours. Next, step 56 may involve supplying a current of 5 mA to anode 130 and cathode 132 for a time period of about twenty-four hours. Next, step 58 may involve supplying a current of 10 mA to anode 130 and cathode 132 for a time period of about twenty-four hours. Next, step 60 may involve supplying a current of 25 mA to anode 130 and cathode 132 for a time period of about twenty-four hours. Next, step 62 may involve supplying a current of 50 mA to anode 130 and cathode 132 for a time period of about twenty-four hours. Next, step 64 may involve supplying a current of 75 mA to anode 130 and cathode 132 for a time period of about twenty-four hours. Finally, step 66 may involve supplying a current of 100 mA to anode 130 and cathode 132 for a time period of about twenty-four hours.
  • Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, electrochemical cell 100 may include an electrolytic solution 170, an anode 130, and a cathode 132. Electrolytic solution 170 may comprise a metallic salt having a first metal that substantially absorbs deuterium when reduced to an atomic state, and a supporting electrolyte, each dissolved in heavy water. As an example, the metallic salt may be selected from the group of transition metals, such as palladium. In one embodiment, where the deuterium atoms bind to one another to create deuterium gas, the reduced metal 172, such as palladium, absorbs deuterium 174. In another embodiment, as shown in FIG. 5, gaseous deuterium atoms collect on the surface of cathode 132 and enter into the lattice of metal 172 when in a reduced state. In one implementation, electrolytic solution 170 comprises 20-25 mL solution of 0.03 M palladium chloride and 0.3 M lithium chloride in deuterated water.
  • Cathode 132 may be partially immersed in electrolytic solution 170. Cathode 132 may comprise a second metal that does not substantially absorb deuterium 174 and is generally stable in electrolytic solution 170 when cathode 132 is polarized. For example, cathode 132 may be comprised of Au, Ag, Pt, as well as their alloys. In some embodiments, cathode 132 may comprise a second metal that does absorb deuterium 174 and is generally stable in electrolytic solution 170 when cathode 132 is polarized. As an example, cathode 132 may be comprised of Ni or its alloys. Cathode 132 may be formed into various shapes, such as a wire, rod, screen, or foil. In some embodiments, cathode 132 may be shaped as a wire having a diameter of 0.25 mm and a length of 2.5 cm. Anode 130 may also be partially immersed in electrolytic solution 170 and may be stable in electrolytic solution 170 when anode 130 is polarized. Anode 130 may be manufactured from any electrically conductive material which is stable in electrolytic solution 170, such as Pt, as well as their alloys. The term “stable” with reference to anode 130 and cathode 132 means that the materials employed in the construction of anode 130 and cathode 132 do not substantially corrode when they are polarized and generally do not react with the electrolyte or products of electrolysis. Anode 130 may be formed into various shapes, such as a wire, rod, screen, or foil. As an example, anode 130 may be shaped as a wire having a diameter of 0.25 mm and a length of 30 cm.
  • FIG. 4 illustrates a front perspective view of an embodiment of a system 100 for generating particles using an external magnetic field. System 100 may include an electrochemical cell 110, power supply 140, and magnets 160. Cell 110 may include a body portion 120 and a top portion 122. Cell 110 may be rectangular, square, cylindrical, cubical, or various other shapes as recognized in the art. Cell 110, an example of which is commercially available from Ridout Plastics, model AMAC, part number 752, may be comprised of various non-metallic materials that do not react with the electrolyte, such as butyrate. Body portion 120 may be configured to contain an electrolytic solution 170 (see FIG. 5). As an example, body portion 120 may be cubic in shape and may be comprised of a non-conductive material, such as plastic. Top portion 122 may be configured to cover body portion 120. Top portion 120 may be comprised of a non-conductive material, such as plastic. Top portion 122 may contain an opening 124 therein where an anode 130 may be passed therethrough, and also an opening 126 where a cathode 132 may be passed therethrough. Top portion 122 may also contain an opening 128 for venting purposes.
  • Anode 130 may comprise a wire mounted on a support 150 and may be partially immersed in electrolytic solution 170 (see FIG. 5). Support 150 may be comprised of a chemically inert material, such as polyethylene. Cathode 132 may be shaped as a single wire (as shown in FIG. 7A), a screen (as shown in FIG. 7B), or a foil (as shown in FIG. 7C). One end 131 of anode 130 may be connected to power supply 140. One end 133 of cathode 132 may be connected to power supply 140. Power supply 140 may be a potentiostat/galvanostat, an example of which is commercially available from Princeton Applied Research, model 363. The other end 135 of anode 130 may be coupled to a support 150 (see FIG. 5), which may be secured to body portion 120. Cathode 132 may be coupled to a particle detector 152 that may be attached to body portion 120. Both particle detector 152 and cathode 132 may be mounted to body portion 120. In one embodiment, particle detector 152 may be contiguous with cathode 132. In another embodiment, detector 152 may be in proximity to cathode 132, such that particles emitted from cathode 132 may contact particle detector 152. For example, particle detector 152 may be positioned adjacent to cathode 132. As another example, particle detector 152 may be positioned between cathode 132 and body portion 120. Particle detector 152 may be used to detect the occurrence of particles.
  • Particle detector 152 may be comprised of a non-metallic material. In one implementation, particle detector 152 may be comprised of CR-39 material. CR-39 is a thermoset resin that is chemically resistant to the electrolyte and to electromagnetic noise. CR-39 may be commercially obtained from Landauer. Particle detector 152 may comprise various shapes. As an example, particle detector 152 may be rectangular in shape with dimensions of 1 cm.times.2 cm.times.1 mm. When traversing a plastic material such as CR-39, particles create along their ionization track a region that is more sensitive to chemical etching than the rest of the material. After treatment with an etching agent, tracks remain as holes or pits that may be seen with the aid of an optical microscope. The size, depth of penetration, and shape of the tracks provides information about the mass, charge, energy, and direction of motion of particles generated by method 10. Neutral particles, like neutrons, will produce knock-ons, or charged particles resulting from the collision with the neutron that will leave ionization tracks, or, with sufficient energy (e.g. >12 MeV) cause .sup.12C present in the CR-39 resin to fission into 3 charged .alpha. particles that will leave ionization tracks.
  • Magnets 160 and 162 may be positioned adjacent to body portion 120 such that a magnetic field is created within electrochemical cell 100 between anode 130 and cathode 132 and though electrolytic solution 170. In some embodiments, the magnetic field created between magnets 160 and 162 may be sufficient to hold magnets 160 and 162 in position adjacent to body portion 120. In other embodiments, magnets 160 and 162 may be attached to body portion 120. Magnet 160 may be positioned adjacent to the surface of body portion 120 that contacts support 150. Magnet 162 may be positioned adjacent to the surface of body portion 120 that contacts detector 152. Magnets 160 and 162 may be comprised of various magnetic materials, such as NeFeB. As an example, the dimensions of magnets 160 and 162 may be 1 in.times.1 in.times.0.25 in. Magnets 160 and 162 may be commercially obtained from Dura Magnetics, part number NS-10010025. As an example, the external magnetic field created by magnets 160 and 162 may have a magnetic flux between about 1800 and 2200 Gauss. Magnets 160 and 162 may be permanent magnets or may be electromagnets.
  • FIG. 5 illustrates a cross-section view of a cell 110 during a co-deposition process. As shown, cell 110 is connected to power supply 140 and includes electrolytic solution 170 therein. Electrolytic solution 170 may comprise a soluble metallic salt (not shown) having a first metal, such as palladium, and a supporting electrolyte (not shown), wherein the palladium and chlorine are combined to form a palladium chloride complex anion, PdCl.sub.4.sup.-. The palladium chloride complex anion may be dissolved in heavy water (D.sub.2O) (not shown), with the palladium absorbing deuterium 174 when in a reduced state. The supporting electrolyte may include an ionizable salt to increase solution conductivity. Examples of ionizable salts may include: alkali metal chlorides, nitrates, and perchlorates. In one embodiment, electrolytic solution 170 may be comprised of a metallic salt such as 0.05 M PdCl.sub.2 and a salt such as 0.3 M LiCl dissolved in 99.9 percent pure heavy water. During the co-deposition process, metal 172 infused with deuterium 174 may be deposited on cathode 132, while oxygen 176 accumulates around anode 130.
  • FIG. 6 illustrates a cross-section view of an embodiment of a system 200 for generating particles using an external electric field. System 200 may include an electrochemical cell 210, power supply 240, and external electrodes 260 and 262. Cell 210 may include a body portion 220 and a top portion 222. Top portion may contain an opening 224 (not shown) therein where an anode 230 may be passed there through, and also an opening 226 (not shown) where a cathode 232 may be passed there through. Top portion 222 may also contain an opening 228 (not shown) for venting purposes. Cell 210 may be rectangular, square, cylindrical, or various other shapes as recognized in the art. Cell 210 may be comprised of various non-metallic materials, such as butyrate. Anode 230 and cathode 232 may be connected to power supply 240. Power supply 240 may be a potentiostat or a galvanostat. Anode 230 is attached to a support 250. Cathode 232 may be coupled to a particle detector 254 that is attached to a support 256. Particle detector 254 may be comprised of a non-conductive material. In one implementation, particle detector 254 is comprised of CR-39 material.
  • Electrodes 260 and 262 may be positioned adjacent to body portion 220 such that an electric field may be created between anode 230 and cathode 232. In some embodiments, electrodes 260 and 262 may be secured to body portion 220 by an adhesive. Electrodes 260 and 262 are positioned adjacent to the surface of body portion 220 perpendicular to anode 230 and cathode 232. Electrodes 260 and 262 may be comprised of various conductive materials as recognized by one with ordinary skill in the art, such as copper. As an example, electrodes 260 and 262 may be less than one inch in diameter. Electrode 260 may be connected to a regulated high voltage source 264 via wire 266, whereas electrode 262 may be connected to regulated high voltage source 264 via wire 268. Wires 266 and 268 may comprise any suitable electrical wire as recognized by one with ordinary skill in the art. An example of a voltage source 264 that may be utilized with system 200 is voltage source model 4330, which may be commercially obtained from EMCO. Voltage source 264 may be used to apply 6000V DC (with about 6% AC component) across electrodes 260 and 262.
  • Electrochemical cell 210 includes an electrolytic solution 270. Electrolytic solution 270 may comprise a metallic salt having a first metal that substantially absorbs deuterium when in a reduced state (not shown), and a supporting electrolyte (not shown), each dissolved in heavy water (not shown). As an example, the metallic salt may be selected from the group of transition metals, such as palladium. In one embodiment, where the deuterium atoms bind to one another to create deuterium gas, the reduced deuterium absorbing metal 272, such as palladium, absorbs deuterium 274. In another embodiment, deuterium atoms collect on the surface of cathode 232 and enter into the lattice of deuterium absorbing metal 272 when in a reduced state. In one implementation, electrolytic solution 270 comprises 20-25 mL solution of 0.03 M palladium chloride and 0.3 M lithium chloride in deuterated water.
  • Referring to FIGS. 7A-7C, FIG. 7A shows a front view of one side of an embodiment of system 100, illustrating an embodiment of the cathode 132. As shown, cathode 132 is attached to detector 152. In this implementation, cathode 132 consists of a wire 134. As an example of a commercially available wire 134, may be obtained from Aldrich, Au wire part number 326534 or Pt wire part number 349402. The cathode may be 0.25 mm in diameter, and be 3 cm in length. FIG. 7B illustrates a front view of one side of an embodiment of system 100, illustrating another embodiment of cathode 132. As shown, cathode 132 is attached to detector 152. In this implementation, cathode 132 is formed as a screen 138. Screen 138 may serve to increase the surface area for particle emission. Screen 138 may be comprised of various metallic materials, such as Ni, Cu, Ag, and Au. As an example, a screen 138 commercially available from Delker, part number 3 Ni 5-077, is comprised of nickel, is 3 cm in size, has a thickness of 0.08 mm, and has eyelet dimensions of 1.5 mm.times.2.0 mm. FIG. 7C illustrates a front view of one side of an embodiment of system 100, illustrating another embodiment of cathode 132. As shown, cathode 132 is attached to detector 152. In this implementation, cathode 132 is formed as a foil 139. Foil 139 may serve to increase the surface area for particle emission. Foil 139 may be comprised of various metallic materials, such as Ni, Cu, Ag, and Au. As an example, a foil 139 commercially available from Aldrich, part number 349267, is 2.5 cm in size and has a thickness of 0.025 mm.
  • In the absence of an external electric/magnetic field, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis of electrodes prepared by Pd/D co-deposition exhibit highly expanded surfaces consisting of small spherical nodules to form a cauliflower-like morphology. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic pulsing experiments indicate that, by using the co-deposition technique, a high degree of deuterium loading (with an atomic ratio D/Pd>1) is obtained within seconds. These experiments also indicate the existence of a D.sub.2.sup.+ species within the Pd lattice. Because an ever expanding electrode surface is created, non-steady state conditions are assured, the cell geometry is simplified because there is no longer a need for a uniform current distribution on the cathode, and long charging times to achieve high deuterium loadings are eliminated.
  • Using the Pd/D co-deposition process, radiation emission and tritium production were documented. The results indicated that the reactions were nuclear in origin and that they occurred in the subsurface. To enhance these surface effects, experiments were conducted in the presence of either an external electric or magnetic field. SEM analysis showed that when a polarized Au/Pd/D electrode was exposed to an external electric field, significant morphological changes were observed. These changes ranged from re-orientation and/or separation of weakly connected globules, through forms exhibiting molten-like features. EDX analysis of these features showed the presence of additional elements (in an electric field Al, Mg, Ca, Si, and Zn; in a magnetic field Fe, Cr, Ni, and Zn) that could not be extracted from cell components and deposited on discrete sites.
  • To verify that the new elements observed on the cathodes were nuclear in origin, the Pd/D co-deposition was done in the presence of a CR-39 detector. CR-39 is a polyallydiglycol carbonate polymer that is widely used as a solid state nuclear track dosimeter chip. When traversing a plastic material such as CR-39, charged particles create along their ionization track a region that is more sensitive to chemical etching than the rest of the bulk. After treatment with an etching agent, tracks remain as holes or pits and their size and shape can be measured.
  • It should be noted that, in the area of modern dosimetry, CR-39 dosimeter chips are the most efficient detectors for the detection of light particles (alphas or protons). Experiments were conducted in which either a Ni screen or Au/Ag/Pt wire was wrapped around a CR-39 chip and was then used as the substrate for the Pd/D co-deposition. After the Pd was completely plated out, the cell was exposed to either an external electric or magnetic field. The experiment was terminated after two days and the CR-39 chip was etched using standard protocols (6.5 N NaOH at 70.degree. C. for 6-7 hrs). After etching, the chip was examined under a microscope.
  • The Pd/D co-deposition generated pits in CR-39 have the same properties as those created by nuclear particles as shown in FIGS. 8A and 8B. FIGS. 8A and 8B are microphotographs 300 and 400, respectively, of tracks in CR-39 due to an alpha source. When the microscope optics are focused on the surface of the detector, as shown in FIG. 8A, it can be seen that the tracks 310 are symmetrical in shape and dark in color. When the microscope optics are focused inside the pits 410, as shown in FIG. 8B, bright spots 420 are observed. Tracks have a conical shape. The bright spot 420 is caused by the bottom of the track acting like a lens when the detector is backlit. The dark, symmetrical shapes with bright spots at their centers are diagnostic of nuclear generated tracks.
  • FIGS. 8C and 8D show microphotographs 500 and 600, respectively, of Pd/D co-deposition generated tracks 510 and 610 obtained by focusing the microscope optics on the surface and the bottom of the pits, respectively. It can be seen that the Pd/D co-deposition generated tracks are dark and symmetrical in shape, with bright spots 520 and 620, respectively, inside them.
  • FIGS. 9A and 9B show images taken of the CR-39 detector after a Pd/D co-deposition experiment in a magnetic field. FIG. 9A illustrates a magnified image 700 of a CR-39 taken after a Pd/D co-deposition experiment in a magnetic field in accordance with an embodiment of the system and method for generating particles. FIG. 9B illustrates a further magnified image of image 700.
  • The electrode substrate used to create these images is a 0.25 mm diameter Ag wire. Visible inspection of the CR-39 chip showed a cloudy area where the electrode substrate was in close proximity to the CR-39 detector. The cloudy area 710 shown in FIG. 9A is approximately 0.5 mm wide and 4.6 mm long. The fact that the cloudy area was only observed where the detector was in close proximity to the cathode indicates that the cathode has caused the cloudiness. The 500.times. magnification of the center of the cloudy area shown in FIG. 9B illustrates the presence of numerous overlapping tracks 720, both large and small. The number of tracks is far more than are observed in laser fusion experiments (typically DD or DT).
  • FIGS. 10A and 10B show a side-by-side comparison of features observed when the detector is exposed to depleted U and a detector that has undergone exposure to a Pd/D co-deposition experiment in the presence of an external electric field. FIG. 10A illustrates a magnified image 800 of a CR-39 detector exposed to depleted uranium. FIG. 10B illustrates a magnified image 900 of a CR-39 detector exposed to a Pd/D co-deposition experiment performed on a Au wire in the presence of a 6000V external electric field in accordance with the disclosed subject matter. Since the features look the same, and since depleted Uranium is giving off alphas, it stands to reason that the features observed for the co-deposition experiment are also due to high energy particles. These particles can be either alphas, protons, or neutrons.
  • It should be noted that in the absence of an external electric/magnetic field, when Ni screen is used as the cathode, no tracks are observed on the CR-39 chip, as shown in FIG. 11. FIG. 11 illustrates an image 1000 of a CR-39 detector indicating X-ray emission, in accordance with an embodiment of the system and method for generating particles. Instead of tracks, the impression of the electrode substrate is observed in the CR-39 detector which has been caused by the emission of soft X-rays from the cathode.
  • The size of the tracks is proportional to the energy of the particle that created the track. It has been observed that the energy of the particles created in these experiments can be controlled by the electrode substrate. When the Pd/D co-deposition reaction is done on a light Z material such as Ni, the particles are small and homogeneous in size, as shown in image 1100 shown in FIG. 12A. However, when the reaction is done on a higher Z material, such as Ag, Au, or Pt, both large and small particles are observed, as shown in FIGS. 9A, 9B, 10B, 12A, and image 1200 shown in FIG. 12B.
  • FIG. 13A shows an SEM image 1300 of the Pd deposit on Au foil that has been exposed to a magnetic field. The Lorentz lines of the magnetic field have caused the Pd micro-globules to form star-like features. FIGS. 13B-13D show images 1400, 1500, and 1600, respectively, taken of a CR-39 detector after a Pd/D co-deposition experiment in a magnetic field using a Ag wire cathode. FIG. 13B shows that the tracks coincide with the Pd deposit indicating that the Pd deposit is the source of the tracks. FIGS. 13C and 13D show magnified images of the tracks. The tracks vary in size indicating that particles of different types and energies are being produced.

 

Inventors: Boss; Pamela A. (San Diego, CA), Gordon; Frank E. (San Diego, CA), Szpak; Stanislaw (Poway, CA), Forsley; Lawrence Parker Galloway (San Diego, CA)
Applicant:
Name City State Country Type

Boss; Pamela A.
Gordon; Frank E.
Szpak; Stanislaw
Forsley; Lawrence Parker Galloway
San Diego
San Diego
Poway
San Diego
CA
CA
CA
CA
US
US
US
US
Assignee: JWK International Corporation (Annandale, VA)
The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy (Washington, DC)
Family ID: 48049106
Appl. No.: 11/859,499
Filed: September 21, 2007

 

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15 thoughts on “NAVY LENR Patent Granted – Transmutes Radioactive Waste”

    1. The GEC board of directors, Khim says, includes some well-known Washington
      D.C. Players, including
      .
      former Secretary of Defense Frank Carlucci,
      .
      former Congressman and Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta, and
      .
      former U.S. Congressman Tom Davis, among others.

  1. So will there now be a rush of science journals queuing up to write articles apologising to the Wonderful scientists of yesteryear such as Newton, who they have arrogantly demeaned for years for their experiments in Alchemy that led to many advances.
    Now will they actually start doing science instead of spending all their time giving dead-brained “opinions” telling everybody what is impossible etc. because their high priests say so.
    Thankfully hidden away are still a few True Scientists willing to follow the only worthwhile scientific principle —–
    Search only for the Truth with research and not comical “expert opinion”

  2. Would you kindly put only one graphic above the article, or if you’re switching between two different graphics, MAKE THEM THE SAME SIZE! As one is trying to read the article the text keeps shifting up and down when the graphic picture changes due to the different vertical sizes!!! VERY annoying…

  3. Dr. James A. Patterson had also succeeded in neutralizing radioactive waste via a “Cold Fusion” cell.
    After he had a applied for a patent, the “Men in Black”, as Dr. Patterson called them, visited him at his Sarasota Lab, confirmed that the effect was real, and issued a letter stating that there was no national security issue to block his patent application. Dr. Patterson, unfortunately, was not able to scale-up his invention for commercial use.

  4. ‘Clean’ nuclear power eyed
    MONDAY, 13 FEB 2012 03:45AM BY JON ANDERSON | VARIETY NEWS STAFF
    http://www.mvguam.com/local/news/22144-clean-nuclear-power-eyed.html

    According to Dr. Khim, the GeNiE reactor burns natural uranium which doesn’t require enrichment. It creates no nuclear waste, he says, thus eliminating the need for nuclear waste storage – a major problem wherever nuclear generation using old technology is used. In fact, the reactor can use spent fuel from current plants as a fuel source, although there is no plan to use such fuel for the Guam reactor, he points out. Since there is no nuclear chain reaction involved, no nuclear meltdown is possible and there is also no weapons proliferation risk. It is clean nuclear technology, Dr. Khim contends.

    “The key to this technology,” Khim explains, “is that the GeNiE reactor actually burns uranium 238 in a hybrid fusion-fission process that is clean, utterly safe, and secure. The reactor is cooled by helium gas – rather than water – which cannot become radioactive. There is no need for a separate heat exchanger or secondary loop, which greatly simplifies the reactor, increasing safety and reducing costs.”

    Global Energy Corp. is proposing to build a 50-megawatt plant as a pilot project on Guam, on a build, operate and transfer basis for which GEC would obtain its own financing. Guam ratepayers would pay only for the electric power generated. Khim says he will finance the estimated $250 million plant himself. “No initial money for Guam at all,” Khim assured. “I’ll pay all the money; I’ll run it; and give Guam cheap electricity.” He says once his company and the CCU enter into a memorandum of understanding, other issues, such as the location of the reactor, will be explored.

    “Our plan is to fuel the generator only once, and the fuel would last for 50 years,” Khim said. The fuel will be natural, unenriched uranium ore, which is mined in various countries including the U.S. and Australia.

  5. Posted somewhere by Doug about 4 0r 5 years ago… or so I’m told.
    .
    Thanks Amy for sending it to me. Poignantly posted here.
    .
    HaHa? Pons and Fleishman?
    .
    They left the US because people openly talked about physically geting rid of them. The scientists didn’t even leave the room anymore. It was time for them to RUN AWAY and hide. They never could finish their work, your kind of divine preception of all possible research outcomes is exactly that what prevented them from doing the actual research.
    .
    Pons and Fleishman were immediately ridiculed out of the profession in the same manner as many who have made revolutionary scientific discoveries throughout history. The high temperature plasma physics crowd, funded to the tune of billions of taxpayer dollars, were particularly vicious. The physics establishment declared that such a result was not permitted by their models, mostly because it failed to produce a cesspool of nuclear waste, and therefore not possible. Never allowing for the possibility that they or their models might not know everything, the High Priests of Science declared Pons and Fleishman crackpots, the government and the media bought it, and that little bit of unpleasantness was quickly put behind the scientific establishment.
    .
    Or so they thought.
    .
    Pons and Fleishmann’s research was immediately declared to be faulty and they were blacklisted from the scientific community. Academic journals declared that their results violated the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which sets limits on how heat can be converted into energy. The U.S. Department of Energy released a report saying that the cold fusion experiment did present some unexplained phenomena, but it did not warrant any additional funding.
    .
    Pons and Fleishman made their announcement in March of 1989. The announcement was to protect The University of Utah’s patent rights. Some important information like the palladium alloy they used and the length of time it took to get a result (weeks) were not released to protect patent rights. Many scientists understood the significance of the discovery and scientists all over the world began experiments.
    .
    Pons and Fleishman had been reproducing the experiment for five years and did not expect the difficulty others would have reproducing the experiment. Expectations were raised very high, and when a lot of positive experimental evidence was not appearing, there was a backlash. In the scientific world editors of journals have a lot of power, since scientists must publish or perish.
    .
    The editor of Nature and other editors decided that cold fusion could not be real, that it was an embarrassment to science and that it needed to be squelched immediately. They also concluded the end justified the means. The used de facto censorship, name calling, and tried to ruin the careers of people who advanced the cold fusion idea. For this reason many of the scientists who continued to work on cold fusion, were retired, had tenure, or worked in another country where the witch hunt was not active.
    .
    Pons and Fleishman discovered cold fusion which was quickly followed by verification of the results from several nationally recognized research labs as well as academic papers on bosun theorey that completely explained the observed the phenomena.
    .
    I repeate, 17 years ago, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleishmann captured the imagination of the world with their announcement of fusion at room temperature. When duplicating the effect turned out to be difficult, the whirlwind of positive publicity quickly turned with a vengeance into a firestorm of negative publicity and ridicule, which continues to this day.
    .
    Despite the ridicule, there has remained a dedicated and growing core of scientists who have not only replicated room-temperature fusion, but also have improved on its performance and have broadened the number of methods for achieving it. In the midst of this academic pariah movement, Dr. Martin Fleischmann has continued his research, and regularly presents at conferences.
    .
    A couple of years back in Britain, he tried to retire, but could not stay away from his experimentation.

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