The last full day of ICCF-18’s Blizzard in July!
Thomas Passell presented Evidence for Oppenheimer-Phillips Reactions in Deuterated Palladium and Titanium, in this case, about deuteron stripping reactions. Passell was at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) when the announcement came out in 1989, and recommended funding for SRI International to research the phenomenon. EPRI was confused by the rushed 1989 DoE report concluding there was nothing to the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE). When the Bhabha Atomic Research (BARC) published their results of multiple tests by 12 groups showing nuclear effects, EPRI then proceeded with funding, and continued for years.
He claims that deuterons must prefer to react with stationary atoms in the metal host, rather than other moving deuterons, and apparently, “109 and 88 are the magic numbers” for Passell.
A series of theoretical lectures followed.
He asked first why there is so little radiation from cold fusion? He then compared experimental claims with the predictions of his TSC model.
24 +/-1 MeV/He4 heat, weak alpha peaks, and weak neutrons – all seen in Pd-D systems – were close to what his model predicted. Heat with no neutrons or gammas was close to what he expected theoretically in Ni-H systems. The lack of nuclear ash data is an unknown for this comparison, though.
Takahashi sees three distinct states, an initial state where a unique structure forms, an intermediate virtual state, and a final state interaction. The TSC is the unique formation of a Tetrahedral Symmetric Cluster of four deuterons, which then fuse to Be8 before fissioning to alpha particles.
Takahashi indicated that his TSC model could explain Alexander Karabut‘s data, the very same that Peter Hagelstein explained yesterday with his new idea.
Another theoretical model was presented by Andrew Meulenberg with Composite Model for LENR in Linear Defects of a Lattice. Meulenberg summoned Schwinger’s model to begin, acknowledging Edmund Storms’ new model, which has inspired to Meulenberg to think along new lines.
Julian Schwinger spoke about a correlated phonon-induced motion of a D sub-lattice. How does phonon emission alter hydron motion? An increased number of phonons implies more amplitude of motion, and high phonon emission gives local concentration above the norn.
But how do you overcome the D-D Coulomb barrier? Sinha’s model of 1999 speculated that pair up bound electrons, allowing D+ and D- to attract. Electron pairing is well-known phenomenon and pairing in an s-orbit (at multi-eV levels) is stable. M noted that this doesn’t work inside the lattice, but a linear defect allows it.
Linear defects also allow phonons to bring deuterons closer together. Linear defects allow hydrogen ground state to drop deeper down, become important.
Meulenberg showed Sinha’s Hamiltonian, somewhat similar to Hagelstein’s yesterday.
If deuteron separation is at 1500 Fermi, dimensions are shrinking to a 1-d situation, and the electron spends more time in between. High electron density can be maintained with a chain of hydrons, forming kilovolt electron wells, building up enough negative charge, creating a way around the Coulomb barrier.
Variable lattice space allow linear space to bring multiple H or D, giving “alot to play with.”
Says Muelenberg, “Different models for CF are converging to a coherent picture; fitting the data without violating any physics and chemistry principles.”
Storms commented during M’s question period, thanking him for putting his idea into context and providing the vocabulary of physics. He then quipped to all his colleagues, “I don’t care if you believe my theory or not, just don’t believe anybody else!”
Theoretical Analysis and Reaction Mechanisms for Experimental Results of Hydrogen-Nickel Systems presented by Yeong Kim was anticipated because of his recent collaboration with Defkalion Green Technologies, who beamed in a video of their demonstration of the R-5 reactor in Milan on Tuesday.
The Hyperion reactor contains a core of nickel metal foam. Heating the system to 180 C – 849 C, the Hyperion is then triggered, after which the magnetic field rose 0.6 to 1.6 Tesla.
Kim says, “This indicates that LENRs are producing very strong electric fields E, currents I, and magnetic fields B.”
No gammas outside of 50 keV to 300 keV were detected from the Hyperion.
Graphs were shown of an excess heat run, and a control run, where the data showed the power can be cut-off at will, revealing the ability to control the reaction.
Kim then began to describe his theoretical explanation of the data. He speculated that in the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE), two deuterons making a Helium-4 require a symmetric release of energy, to conserve total momentum.
For two-particles exiting the reaction, his model shows lower probability.
“The problem is solved”, says Kim, and he is willing to talk to other theorists to help convince them.
He then described Boson Cluster-State Nuclear Fusion (BCSNF) generalized to include Hydrogen-Metal Systems. While there are still some unknowns, namely the S-factor representing the nuclear force strength, and the probability of the Boson Cluster State (BCS), the predicted reaction rates can be compared with the experimental reaction rates.
Kim speculated that the magnetic fields generated by the triggering could provide magnetic alignments of Nickel atoms, and these could provide localized magnetic trap (LMT) potentials for Boson clusters on the surface of Ni powders, though these traps have short lifetimes.
It is Rydberg atoms that then form the BEC cluster state.
“H and Ni powders triggered by glow discharge created a magnetic field causing Rydberg states allowing nano-scale localized magnetic traps, allowing Hydrogen Boson Cluster States in the LMT on the Ni surfaces. Fusion between these elements create excess heat and locally produced glow discharges.”
Kim writes, “Transmutation reactions involving Ni isotopes may not be dominant reaction mechanism but could be part of much weaker secondary reaction.”
Kim believes that self-sustaining reactions could be improved by increasing the deuterium density, and this will be tested with Hyperion R-6 reactor with the on-line real-time mass spectrometer at Defkalion Lab.
1% of Defkalion revenue will be spent on basic scientific research. Moving forward, Defkalion will be cooperating with National Instruments, as well.
A short break allowed me to take a few photographs, and before I knew it, I heard Vladimir Vysotskii‘s voice echoing through the hall. I knew I was late for the Transmutations in Biological and Chemical Systems Panel
Jean-Paul Biberian, the Chair of the panel had opened up the session, handing it off to Vysotskii, who has done some stunning work in transmutation of elements in a heavy-water solution with added micro-organisms, whereby the culture “absorbs” the element, and then transmutes it to a new element. Vysotskii’s research is attempting to use this process to transmute radioactive Cesium-137 to a benign material, offering a path to ridding the planet of 100,000 tons of spent reactor fuel, a high-level radioactive waste, as well as the 1 million tons of highly active water in the world, and the 10 million tons of low-level radioactive waste.
The method is being tested at the Chernobyl region, and he will be working with engineers at the Fukushima plant to further test the application.
Vysotskii was clear to say that it was not just accelerated decay, but a reduction in the number of active atomic elements – a change of 24% in one run. He noted that in the Chernobyl region, there has been an abnormal accelerated decrease of environmental radioactivity, implying that it may be related to the transmutation of these elements by biological organisms.
Lectures were almost an hour behind schedule now. Vysotskii took a few queries, laughing that no matter what, “I have an answer to every question!”
Akira Kitamura, sponsored by Technova, Inc, began his talk on A Mass-Flow-Calorimetry System for Scaled-up Experiments on Anomalous Heat Evolution at Elevated Temperatures. He described a new cell that uses oil-mass-flow calorimetry and where coolant controls the temperature within 0.1 degree C. Neutron and gamma detectors are situated around the vacuum-chamber, sealed unit.
Al2O3 powder was used as a control to calibrate. Preliminary runs used CNS/Al2O3 sample, where the Silica compound was made with a nickel and copper nano-compound containing 4 grams nickel mixed with 200 grams Al2O3 . Temperature output varies with heat input in both cases.
The coolant oil reached almost 300 degrees C at heater input of 231 W. There was long-term stability. The trial run excess heat appeared to be on the same order as that of the CNZ sample yielding about 2W/g-Ni.
The talk on ENEA Workshop Comments and Next Steps by Vittorio Violante was rescheduled due to time constraints.
After lunch, it was time for the Neutron and Radiation Production Panel chaired by Xing Zhong Li. John Gahl, Frank Gordon, Graham Hubler, and Thomas Passell were panel members.
Xing Zhong Li spoke first about an early effort to detect neutrons from inside a neutrino detector in order to test the nuclear origin of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE), (a big mistake). In any rate, neutrino detectors are no long giant caverns of technology, but smaller 3x3x3 cubic meter units.
Li feels we should be testing cold fusion cells for neutrinos (using one of these smaller units), and asked the auditorium if anyone knows anyone who can help obtain one. And that was all he wanted to say.
John Gaul uses the MURR cyclotron to shoot 8.4 MeV =/- 2.3% deuterons at deuterium-loaded palladium foil, and found higher levels of Pd109 afterwards, as well as Pd-111 and Ag-111. The foils were hot, too. Experimental cross-sections were much larger than expected.
These were the results of only two experiments, and uncertainties like beam current on the target, will need further runs, which are planned.
229Thm 7.6 eV nuclear excited state 5 hour lifetime
Hubler asks: Can isomers like this play a role in anomalous heat? Are there any more undiscovered low energy isomers? Nuclear structure theory is too inaccurate to predict others.
Low-energy nuclear work was dropped prior to 1940 until the early 50s. It is just now picking up again. He talked about the nuclear Halo effect, and enhanced low energy cross-sections for d,d and d,p which show anomalies, and 3-d fusion. I can’t say I understand this, so forgive me if I end there.
Hubler ended with, “Not all the nuclear structure is known, and there’s probably more to find.”
Frank Gordon began his talk Bottom Line Up Front, and his bottom line? Radiation is produced in LENR experiments, but much, much lower than what is expected by conventional theory. He showed a graph summarizing just some of the reported radiation and how it was measured. His work in San Diego detected triple tracks in CR-39, indicating the presence of energetic (>9.6 MeV) neutrons, though seven orders of magnitude below the expected number expected by conventional theory and hot fusion. “Low flux rates suggest new/unidentified channels including possibly aneutronic reactions exist.”
He showed some pictures of those tracks next to DT neutrons, almost identical. “Experiments provide compelling evidence that nuclear reactions are occurring”, says Gordon, who no longer says “irrefutable evidence”, because “you can refute anything”, and apparently people who do so.
Tom Passell was back with Evidence for Deuteron Stripping in Metals That Absorb Hydrogen to show slides he hadn’t shown before. Passell has a hundred glow-discharge cells running 24-7 at 2 Watts each, all with different metallic cathodes. 40 kHz AC and low power, they live for a months at a time.
That was all I was able to get of this talk.
At 3PM, David French led a seminar on patents. He spoke of the general features a good patent should have to receive approval, focusing on the particulars relating to cold fusion. French is well-versed in the history of technology and uses many examples to illustrate complex issues using easy-to-understand analogies.
He took many questions from audience in rapid-fire, answering general and specific issues that the participants had brought up. French wants to help cold fusion scientists make better patents to get new energy technology officially approved.
Unfortunately, I must apologize for missing Hydrogen Embrittlement and Piezonuclear Reactions in Electrolysis Experiments by Alberto Carpinteri and Piezonuclear Fission Reactions Simulated by the Lattice Model by Diego Veneziano, but Eli got video, so we’ll catch it in the future.
It was a special session that re-iterated Hagelstein’s excitement with his new model. He answered all questions, explaining further how this model can fit the Karabut data, and appears to correlate with Vysotskii’s, too.
One thing I didn’t miss was the Banquet in the evening.
John Dash received the award for Best Poster.
Michael McKubre announced that ICCF-19 will be held in Venice, Italy March 15-21, 2015.
Frank Gordon announced the winner of the Preparata Metal.
Winner Pam Mosier-Boss accepts the Preparata Metal for her outstanding achievements in science.
The evening continued with ragtime musicians setting a down-home tone, and the available scientists who attended the very first ICCF-1 meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah assembled for a photo. Edmund Storms was there, but somehow disappeared right before the photo was taken.
There’s more coverage from the banquet to publish, but it’s been another 16 hour day, so for for now it’s time to say good night. Tomorrow is the final day which will be a half day with more panels and the closing session.