Frank Acland started E-CatWorld.com
on April 4 in the year 2011 after Andrea Rossi had performed a public
demonstration of his nickel-hydrogen-based steam generator named the Energy Catalyzer, or E-Cat.
“A Focardi-Rossi news conference was late in January of that year, and I became aware of it through some friends. I just got interested in it, and thought, why isn’t this being reported on more anywhere else?” he says.
“I thought it was a story worth following, and I thought it was worth putting out there, and once I started, I really haven’t been able to stop.”
“To me, the story has never died. It’s become a long and winding road, but I’m just as interested now as I was then. So I haven’t stopped, and I don’t plan on stopping until there is some obvious resolution. Since I don’t know what the future holds, I’m just going to keep going until something happens where I can’t go any longer.”
Back in 2011, the Vortex-l mailing list was where speculative science and new energy talk happened. ColdFusionNow.org had been in existence barely a year, and rejected the belicose comments and unknowable claims. E-CatWorld.com stepped in to host the debate over Andrea Rossi’s technology, but even there, comments were quickly curbed to prevent all but the news and blow-by-blow of the engineering developments.
“I didn’t want to be administering a website that was full of acrimony and arguments, so I set up the rules that I was comfortable living with,” says Frank Acland, whose been actively screening the comments since.
“I wanted E-Cat World to be a place there this topic is taken seriously. I have always felt that Andrea Rossi came up with something important. I’ve never felt he’s been telling a big lie all years over what he’s done, though, obviously, he’s extremely secretive. So I just made it a policy that this would be a forum where we’re not going to argue over whether he’s a fraud or liar – that’s not what I wanted the website to be. I’ve set up moderation rules that are listed on my site and I’ve stuck to them.”
“I know there’s some people who don’t like the fact that certain comments are not allowed on the site. People can talk however they want to elsewhere. For me, it’s worked well.”
With over 3000 posts to-date, E-CatWorld maintains a hopeful outlook on a Rossi reactor. Frank Acland is not a scientist, but a librarian by training, and has catalogued the details of the E-Cat drama since it emerged through the Internet in 2011.
A visit with Andrea Rossi
It was 2017 when Frank Acland visited Andrea Rossi. “I received an invitation to come and visit with him in Florida in March, early 2017. He took me to his lab, and I believe it was in the actual Doral facility where he had been running that big machine for the yearlong period.”
“I never actually saw that unit. This was right in the middle of the lawsuit with Industrial Heat. He spent the year inside the shipping container, and this was shortly following the end of that test and when he was involved in litigation.”
“At that point, he was working on the Quark, it was a small machine that was on the desktop. The best picture of that has been published by Mats Lewan back in January. It was a little tabletop thing. We took measurements and he showed me calculations, and at that time, the COP was around 20,000 or something like that. That was at the beginning of when he had developed the first iteration of the plasma system, and that’s what he’s continuing to work on now.”
E-Cat QXClaims: volume ≈ 1 cm3, thermal output 10-30 W, negligible input control power, internal temperature > 2,600° C, no radiation above background.
“It was fascinating of course, because I’d never seen an E-Cat in my life. I was a student and he was a tutor. He was showing me what he had, he was taking measurements with a spectrometer. He showed me how he calculates the energy in the plasma. Of course, this is not an area where I have any expertise at all. I was basically sitting there like he was the teacher and I was the student, and he was explaining how he was coming to his conclusions as to what the COP was.”
“So I saw it with my own eyes and I kind of followed along with his calculations. But this was in the early days, and I did notice there was a big control system on the desk, and he was putting some kind of secret waveform into his plasma, and I did not know what was in there.”
“He was measuring the energy on the plasma side of the control system, but he wasn’t measuring the input into the control system. So there was that issue.”
“I was basically there as someone who was following along, and thinking, ‘Wow, if this is true, it’s a really a very big deal.'”
“At the time that I went, before I went into the room, he pulled out a piece of paper and I signed an NDA. While I was there, I wasn’t taking photographs. I realized that this isn’t something I’m going to be able to go home and report about.”
“Later on that year was the presentation held in Stockholm, and he showed the same system, and then I asked him after that, OK now you’ve shown to to the world, is it OK if I report on what I witnessed? Basically, what I saw was what he showed in Stockholm.”
Videographer Eli Elliott and Andrea Rossi are seen in Miami, FL when Cold Fusion Now! visited and interviewed Andrea Rossi in 2012. Polaroid Photo: Ruby Carat
The MegaWatt IH Lawsuit
Frank Acland had visited the Doral location, but had never seen the MegaWatt unit. Andrea Rossi had abandoned the idea of a large energy generator and returned to the problem of controlling the reaction in a smaller reactor first.
Says Frank Acland, “I never saw the megawatt unit. All I learned about the megawatt unit is what he reported during that time, and what came out in the court case.”
“I think the megawatt unit actually worked, but it sounded like he had to be there constantly to keep it going, it needed constant care and attention. It was not something he could commercialize in that at that point in that format, but I believe he learned a lot from it.”
“I think he was able to translate information he got from the big unit and start making small units, and he’s still perfecting it, so we’re not there yet.”
Why did Andrea Rossi give up on the possibility of $100 million dollars and support to develop the reactor offered by Industrial Heat? Frank Acland gave his take.
“I don’t much beyond what was reported in his blog and also what came out in court, but when Andrea Rossi made a deal with Industrial Heat, my sense is he probably thought they were going to be supporters of him, and that they would be working together. When they started working with other researchers – and I think this was the thing that upset him initially – was that they were not only supporting him and the E-Cat, but they were supporting other researchers.”
“I don’t think that sat well with him. As we know, from the very beginnings, he’s very circumspect about what he says about his technology. He probably told Industrial Heat things that he assumed were going to his supporters – and this was one of the complaints in the court case – that he was concerned that they were sharing things that he told them in confidence with other researchers. Maybe he felt like his IP was being violated or shared, and that was not what he was hoping for when the deal was initially struck.”
“That was not something that he had envisioned, and he wanted to fight to get out of it. I don’t remember the day when he started that lawsuit, but that’s when everything blew up.”
Frank Acland is still confident in Andrea Rossi’s ability to generate a reaction, but whether or not a technology will emerge from the Leonardo Corp. lab is another question.
Andrea Rossi stays the course
“My feeling is that yes, I think he has a very advanced technology. That may not be the consensus. I think a lot of people had hoped that following the press conference with Sergio Focardi, all of this would be out in the open by now, and we’d be using E-Cats in the business world, if not in our homes, but it’s been a long time.”
“But my impression is that Andrea Rossi has always had very big ambitions as an industrialist. As an industrialist, he is extremely secretive because probably – and I think he’s a very smart man whose worked extremely hard over these years – but, if somebody knew what they were doing, and knew the ins and outs of the E-Cat it would not be too difficult for them to replicate, and I think that’s something he definitely does not want to happen, because as an industrialist, this is not in his business interest to share this information.”
“I think that’s the reason he is being so guarded. He wants to make that possibility as slim as possible. I don’t know if that’s possible to happen. There are many people who realize there is something this LENR phenomenon, and mainstream science has dismissed this as being an area for people on the fringes of science.”
“When the day comes that they realize, ‘hey this is for real’, I think there will be an explosion in research and there will be people developing this technology in different ways all over the world, and at that point, it will be impossible to keep secrets.”
“But I don’t think Andrea Rossi is going to change his course. He’s made the decision on how he’s going to go about it and I think he’s going to stick to his guns.”
When asked if Andrea Rossi has heard about the Tadahiko Mizuno report, Frank Acland said “His standard response when it comes to questions like that is, ‘I never comment on my competitors.'”
“I don’t know what he thinks about the Mizuno report. Obviously, if they are using systems that he has experience with, then I’m sure he’s paying attention to it, and trying to maintain his advantage.”
“I think he might be able to learn from people, but I don’t think he’s going to collaborate with people. That’s just the way he’s operated all these years. I’m sure that he reads; I’m sure he pays close attention to what gets published. I don’t think he’s going to change his way of operating. He’s set his course and he’s going to do his best to stick to his course, and whether it’s successful or not , we’ll have to see.”
“I honestly think he has a very advanced technology. I do not know how successful his business plan will turn out to be. That’s yet to be seen. It’s still not entered the mainstream of business or industry. As he said recently, ‘he is in a pioneer phase’. So I think he’s working with select customers. I have no information about who any of his current customers are. There’s a great deal of mystery, even to me, though I’ve been following it closely for years.”
“I’m not really scouring the Internet – ‘oh, who could he be working with?’ Unless someone reveals themselves, I don’t think we’ll know. Until there is something to sell or on the market, it will take a customer speaking out to get more information.”
Optimism fuels the future
Several other labs have recently achieved increasing levels of excess heat from their heat generator designs, including Tadahiko Mizuno, who has reported kilowatt-sized excess heat.
“The encouraging thing about the Mizuno technology,” says Frank Acland, “is that he’s written a paper giving the instructions, saying exactly how he did it, and encouraging others to follow suit. And from what I’ve seen, there are numerous people who are interested in doing this or already are doing this.”
“Actually I read on your website Cold Fusion Now! that Mizuno said that he’s given reactors to 12 different groups to test out, and I’m very interested to learn what they report. I hope it won’t be too long. Mizuno himself said the he was going to reveal data, maybe at the ICCF-22 conference.”
Ruby spoke up about the possible toxicity of nickel dust and that preparation of the mesh should be done in a glove box for maximum safety.
“Mizuno sad that nickel powder is very toxic, responded Frank, “I’m sure it’s important to take every safety recommendation.”
“Also, the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project’s Alan Goldwater has published a live document talking about his preparations, I’m not sure what stage he’s at yet, but I’m encouraged!”
Energy 2.0 Society prepares for breakthrough
“The Energy2.0 Society is a small group of people mostly from Iowa, though one of our members is from Washington State. We formed in 2015 because we all felt like LENR was an important technology, and we all wanted to encourage more people to investigate it and learn more about it.”
“For quite a while, it’s been difficult to get this message out, there’s not really much that one could point to in terms of a third party saying yes, this is real and this works.”
“We’ve had some discussions recently about the development of the Mizuno technology and we’re hopeful that within the not-to-distant future, we’d like to have more meetings and discussions with people outside of the LENR community about what this technology can do, what its potential is, and what the implications are for society in general. But we haven’t had very much to hold up and say ‘look at this!’ We’ve been sort of watching and waiting, along with many other people following this technology. and we’re hoping that maybe in the next year or so, there will be more to talk about.”
“The cold fusion community is a very small community by the size of it, when you compare it to other things that people are interested in like politics, music, sports. I’d say there’s probably maybe 10,000 people around the world who follow it seriously. The solar industry is a huge industry, with many thousands of people working in it; it’s massive compared to cold fusion. But I think at some point, cold fusion will be where solar is right now.”
“Go to E-CatWorld.com and that’s where you can find everything I’ve published over the years, I think its over 3000 posts – it’s been a long time – and I’ve never tired of it yet. Someone’s got to do it!”
“Sometimes it’s a bit of chore, but most of the time it’s a labor of love.”
A remote report by the leading technologist of the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, named after Academician V. S. Sobolev, Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Vitaly Alekseevich Kirkinsky presented “Cold nuclear fusion and transmutation of elements: experiments, theory, patents, natural manifestations” at the conference “Cold fusion – 30 years: results and prospects”, held in Moscow on March 23, 2019.
* * *
I became interested in cold fusion right after 30 years ago when the radio news of electrochemists Martin Fleishman and Stanley Pons at the University of Utah, USA, was announced on the radio. They argued that during electrolysis of lithium salt solutions in heavy water, a yield of neutrons and excess energy of about 1 watt was observed at the palladium electrode, as well as an increase
in tritium concentration in the solution, which, in their opinion, was caused by nuclear fusion of helium from deuterium. This did not fit into the existing ideas of physicists at all, since such reactions could only be carried out at enormous energies. The opinion was that this data was the result of an error or a fraud. There were very serious arguments in favor of this: no products of nuclear reactions were detected, an increase in the tritium content could be caused by its accumulation upon evaporation of heavy water, and the energy release should have been accompanied by a huge neutron flux.
According to the accepted theory, the implementation of thermonuclear fusion requires temperatures of more than 100 million degrees. The fundamental idea of plasma heating and confinement in toroidal chambers placed in a magnetic field – TOKAMAKs was proposed by academicians A. D. Sakharov and I. E. Tamm 70 years ago. The practical implementation of this idea ran into extreme technical difficulties. According to Academician E.P. Velikhov, more than $ 40 billion has already been spent on these works in our country. Russia is participating in the ITER international fusion reactor development program, $20 billion is planned to be spent on the first stage only. By 2027, it is planned to build an experimental reactor and begin experiments with plasma, which can give the answer – whether it will be possible to create the necessary conditions for thermonuclear combustion. If successful, the test results will be the basis for the project even larger – a demonstration thermonuclear reactor DEMO. The DEMO experience in turn will serve as the basis for the design of the first experimental industrial station. However, even if all the scientific and technical problems in half a century can be solved, there are big doubts about the economic feasibility and safety of obtaining energy in fusion reactors.
Given the enormous cost of the project, the life of the reactors due to the strong neutron flux, judging by the experience of operating less powerful tokamaks, will be only a few months. Neutron-free reactions require even higher plasma temperatures and much more expensive reactors.
According to the technical conditions, the thermonuclear reaction can be maintained only in large-volume reactors. A single filling of the working chamber of the reactor with a volume of 830 cubic meters. meters with a mixture of deuterium and tritium will cost more than a billion dollars. Only due to the decay of radioactive tritium monthly losses amount to more than $ 160 thousand. Tritium requires atomic reactors. Diffusion of deuterium and tritium through the walls of the reactor or microcracks can lead to the formation of an explosive mixture with atmospheric oxygen and the explosion of a reactor with serious consequences.
The possibility of implementing nuclear fusion at low temperatures could open up tremendous prospects for energy.
About a hundred groups around the world tried to reproduce the experiments of Fleischmann and Pons . The most convincing results were obtained in Japan [31–33]. Yoshiaki Arata and Yui-Chang Zhang found an excess heat yield of 200–500 MJ / cm3 and the formation of a significant amount of helium in a deuterated palladium black placed in a closed palladium ampoule, which served as a cathode for 5,000 hours of electrochemical experiments. It should be specially noted that the Helium-3 / Helium-4 ratio in the experimental products was 4–5 orders of magnitude higher than atmospheric. Similar experiments were replicated in the laboratory of the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA . The release of excess heat and its correlation with the release of tritium and helium was confirmed. The ratio of Helium-3 / Helium-4 in the products of the experiments was 44,000 times higher than atmospheric.
These and many other results were not published in peer-reviewed journals, but mainly in the materials of international and national conferences. Official science considered them unreliable. Even 23 years after the first report of a new phenomenon in the obituary about the death of Martin Fleischman in the authoritative journal Nature, it was written:
“… cold fusion is now regarded as one of the most famous cases of what the chemist Irwin Langmuir called pathological science: science of things that aren`t so.”
The main reason for the persistence in ignoring the new scientific direction was the impossibility of a theoretical explanation of the experimental data. As the whole history of the development of science shows, new phenomena are recognized only after the conditions for their reliable reproduction are found and a theoretical explanation is given on the basis of the fundamental laws of nature. Building a theory of the phenomenon is an essential stage of a major discovery. For this reason, the development of the theoretical foundations of the mechanism and kinetics of nuclear reactions in condensed matter at low energies is no less important than the detection and confirmation of anomalous phenomena. For practical use in the energy sector, it is necessary to increase the intensity of nuclear reactions by a factor of millions in comparison with the first experiments, which is extremely difficult to implement without a theoretical understanding of the phenomenon.
Since 1989, more than a hundred works have been published in which the most diverse hypotheses have been expressed about the causes of the “Fleischmann and Pons effect.” Links and their classification is given by us in [2, 5]. Most authors were limited to assumptions made in qualitative form. In a survey , the theorists of the United States and Russia concluded:
“Despite considerable efforts, it was not possible to create a theory of cold nuclear fusion that quantitatively or even qualitatively describes experimental results. Models in which it is stated that they have solved this task are far from achieving the goal. ”
At many subsequent international conferences, it was noted that the creation of the theory of nuclear reactions in condensed matter is a task of paramount importance.
Experimenters carried out and still conduct experiments mostly by the inefficient trial and error method. At the 9th Beijing Cold Synthesis Conference in 2003, I asked Martin Fleishman a question; what, in his opinion, is more important for the development of this direction: experiments or theory? He answered briefly: “Both” .
* * *
From the very beginning of our research, we set as the main task the development of the theory of nuclear reactions at low energies, combining this with experiments.
The problem of overcoming the Coulomb barrier is covered in articles published in Europhysics Letters [2, 3], a monograph  and a number of articles in International Conference Materials [6, 7, 10–12].
Our model of the mechanism of nuclear reactions is based on taking into account the dynamic screening of proton (deuteron) charges by external electronic orbitals of metal atoms. Both semiclassical and quantum mechanical models were used. Several hundred thousand numerical experiments were carried out using molecular dynamics methods at random initial positions of deuterons during their diffusion in the crystal structures of a number of metals, which showed how close they are to each other. It turned out that, although the average distance between them is approximately the same as in the D2 molecule – 0.74 Ǻ, several percent of the pairs come closer to a distance of less than 0.1 Ǻ, up to 0.01 Ǻ. At such distances, nuclear fusion occurs due to the tunnel effect, which is calculated according to the formulas generally accepted in quantum mechanics. Calculations using these models for the first time allowed us to obtain quantitative data on the probability and rate of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes in a number of metals: palladium, titanium, lanthanum, alpha- and gamma-iron [5–8, 11, 12, 14].
Together with the theoretical physicist of Altai State University, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences A. I. Goncharov, we performed a computer simulation of the behavior of hydrogen atoms in a medium of free electrons in metals . A previously unknown phenomenon has been discovered: the formation of unsteady complexes of protons or deuterons with orbits of electrons rotating around them in varying size and shape. In size, they are 3–4 orders of magnitude smaller than a hydrogen atom and only one order larger than a neutron. We called them miniatoms or quasineutrons. Due to their electrically neutrality, in a short time of their existence, they can freely move in the crystalline structures of metals and approach the nuclei of hydrogen or metal isotopes at distances at which nuclear interaction occurs due to the tunnel effect. This solves the key problem of overcoming the Coulomb barrier. The calculated reaction rate between deuterons in palladium deuteride taking into account the formation of miniatoms is 6 orders of magnitude higher than previously obtained on the basis of the model of dynamic deformation of electronic orbitals.
Our calculations allowed us to find ways to intensify nuclear reactions of deuterium in the crystal structure of metal hydrides. It was possible to find a nontrivial and effective way to intensify nuclear interaction due to isostructural phase transitions, the probability of overcoming the barrier at which increases significantly, which increases the rate of nuclear fusion by several orders of magnitude.
The reasons for the extremely strong (tens of orders of magnitude) attenuation of neutron and hard gamma radiation during nuclear reactions in metal hydrides and deuterides at low temperatures are justified in comparison with thermonuclear processes in plasma. This is due to the mechanism of nuclear reactions occurring through the intermediate stage of the formation of miniatoms. The characteristic features of such reactions in metal hydrides (deuterides) and their effect on radioactive radiation are considered in . It has been shown that nuclear fusion energy is released mainly in the form of softer – X-ray radiation, which, when absorbed in metals, fuel, reactor and cooling system leads to their heating. This is a very practical feature of nuclear reactions in condensed matter, since protection against x-ray radiation with the help of screens is not difficult and is well developed in scientific and medical devices.
The theoretically calculated emission of excess energy in the process of the α-β transition in palladium deuteride was verified by us together with the thermochemical measurement expert V. A. Drebushchak in experiments on the SETARAM DSK-III scanning calorimeter using a specially developed technique. The results of eight series of experiments showed that during the sorption-desorption of deuterium in a fine-crystalline palladium powder, an excess energy of more than 1 W per gram of palladium deuteride is released, while in similar experiments with a light isotope of hydrogen, no anomalous effects were observed. These results were published by us in the Europhysics letters  and in the materials of the international conference .
Based on the theoretical and experimental studies, a method and device for energy production were developed, for which two Russian patents [26, 27], Eurasian and European patents [28, 29], each of which includes more than 20 private inventions, were obtained.
Their main features are the use of nanopowders of specially selected metals and intermetallic compounds, which, when saturated with deuterium or ordinary hydrogen, undergo isostructural transformations with a change in composition with a change in temperature or pressure.
In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the device according to patent  with a priority date of August 3, 1992.
The installation includes two interconnected steel vessels 1 and 2 with valves 3 and 4 and pockets in which electric heaters 5, 6 and thermocouples 9 and 10 are placed. Outside the vessels there are copper tubes 7 and 8 with cooling fluid. A fine-crystalline metal (Me) is placed inside the vessels, whose hydrides or deuterides undergo an isostructural transition with temperature. Compressed hydrogen, deuterium or their mixture is fed from the connected cylinder 16 to one of the vessels until complete saturation, then the heater is turned on and the valve opens to connect to the second vessel, outside of which cooling water is passed. After a while, the heater of the second vessel turns on, and the process goes in the opposite direction. The cycles of sorption-desorption are repeated many times.
In Fig. 2 shows a diagram of a deuterium heat generator according to patents [27, 28] together with a system for measuring energy balance.
Designations in Fig. 2: 1 – the inner cylinder of the reactor, 2 – the outer cylinder of the reactor, 3 – the cooling casing, 4 – the working volume with the working substance, 5 – shutter, 6 – pressure nut, 7 – dust filters, 8 – locking seal block, 9 – flange joints with a vacuum system and a shut-off valve, 10 – thermal insulation, 11 – heating elements, 12 – coolant, 13 – seals, 14 – pressure nut of the cooling sleeve, 15 – supply and control system for the flow of coolant, 16 – thermocouple measuring unit, 17 – thermostat combined thermocouples s, 18 – power supply, 19 – transformer, 20 – thermocouples, 21 – thermocouple temperature sensor of the liquid entering the heat exchanger, 22 – thermocouple temperature sensor of the liquid leaving the heat exchanger, 23 – Watt-hour electric meter of active energy.
A general view of the manufactured installation is shown in Fig. 3
32.7 g of specially prepared fine crystalline palladium with a particle size of 20 to 100 nm were placed in a 308 cm3 volume heat generator reactor. After evacuation to ~ 1 Pa, from 700 to 2600 ml of gaseous deuterium obtained from heavy water were introduced into the reactor. Measurements were carried out both at constant temperature and pressure, and with cyclic temperature changes from 50º to 600ºC. The energy consumed was measured by the voltage and current strength in the heater, and the released energy was calculated by the heat capacity and the mass of water heated in the heat exchanger. The results of experiments on the dependence of excess energy on temperature are presented in the graph (Fig. 4) .
The relative excess energy averaged ~ 23% with maximum values up to 35% of the expended energy, which corresponds to the emitted power of ~ 20 Watts per gram of palladium or 1 kW per gram of deuterium. The maximum excess power was ~ 600 watts. The total amount of excess energy released is ~ 100 MJ, which is 2500 times higher than the energy of possible chemical reactions in the reactor. This proves that excess energy is due not to chemical, but to nuclear processes. The energy release, which is 25–35% higher than that consumed, was confirmed in a series of experiments with cycles of heating and cooling the reactor.
Evidence of nuclear reactions in the reactor is an increase in neutron and gamma radiation fluxes when the temperature rises to 400ºC and decreases to the background level during cooling (Fig. 5 and 6) .
The measured increase in radioactive radiation does not exceed variations in the natural cosmic background, but the possibility of reproducibly changing their level depending on temperature proves that nuclear reactions occur in the reactor.
The observed intensity of radioactive radiation is many orders of magnitude lower than in thermonuclear reactions in plasma for the equivalent release of total energy, which has been repeatedly noted in all studies of cold nuclear fusion. Nevertheless, it should be said that safety issues, especially when working with plasma plants for cold nuclear fusion, require further serious study.
Even more convincing evidence of nuclear reactions was obtained by examining the contents of the reactor after a series of 65 experiments.
The analysis of the initial palladium and products obtained after the whole series of experiments was carried out by two methods of atomic emission spectral analysis at the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of the SB RAS. In the first of them, developed by VMK-Optoelectronics, the “wake-up-blowing” method at the Potok installation with electric arc excitation, the samples were mixed with especially pure graphite at a ratio of 1:50 and after grinding in a mortar they were fed into an electric arc. Five parallel samples were measured by comparing the intensities of 2–3 spectral lines with standards of known composition.
In another method, atomic emission spectral analysis with inductively coupled ISP-AES plasma, IRIS used solutions previously prepared by dissolving the test substances. We also used laser mass spectral analysis of MS-AES at the IONH RAS using an EMAL-2 instrument. The isotopic composition of palladium was also determined at the IGM SB RAS by the mass spectral method with inductively coupled ICP-MS plasma.
A comparison of the results of analyzes performed by the methods used allows us to come to the following conclusions .
1. During the interaction of gaseous deuterium with a number of elements – impurities in the initial palladium: Li, Be, B, C, F, Mg, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn – their transmutations were observed that are described by generalized nuclear reactions:
with the release of significant energy w, calculated from the increase in mass defect (Table 1).
2. For 15 elements in which a similar reaction would lead to a decrease in mass defect: Ge, As, Y, Cd, Sn, Sb, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb , Lu, Pt, Hg, Pb, Bi, Hf, Ta, a change in the content of elements within the error of spectral analysis methods does not occur.
3. A significant (by two orders of magnitude) increase in the silver content in the product of experiments is most likely due to the reaction of palladium isotopes with high-energy protons — products of a nuclear fusion reaction from deuterons.
4. The isotopic composition of the palladium product of the experiments within the accuracy of the analysis of ICP-MS (± 1%) is identical to the original.
5. The estimate of the energy released during nuclear reactions of the synthesis of helium isotopes from deuterium and due to the transmutation of impurity elements approximately corresponds to the total energy released in the entire cycle of experiments.
The geological evidence of nuclear reactions of hydrogen in the core of the Earth are: high heat flux from a nucleus of 13 ± 3 TW recorded by geophysicists, unexplained by known causes; abnormal ratios of isotopes of He, S, Fe and others in rocks of deep origin and associated hydrothermals; high contents of heavy Fe isotopes in iron meteorites – the remnants of metal nuclei of asteroids (analogues of planetary nuclei) The energy release in nuclear reactions of hydrogen, observed in experiments, in terms of the mass of the nucleus, is much higher than the heat flux from it, and the current energy estimates of the hydrogen content in the core are sufficient to ensure the total heat flux of the Earth over many billions of years. The melting of silicate rocks caused by the heating and formation of water when hydrogen enters the mantle leads to the formation and rise of giant magmatic masses — plumes, an increase in the Earth’s radius and the breaking of its upper hard shell — the lithosphere into large plates. The arrival of hot magmas to split cracks leads to the formation of areas of elevation of the level of the asthenosphere (partially molten layer) and the sliding of plates from them under the action of gravitational forces. Chips of compression occur in the areas of plate collision and subduction zones are formed — plate immersions or mountain systems are formed during the thickening and deformation of the lithosphere. The mechanism that drives lithospheric plates is discussed in detail in my previously published article and monograph [23, 24]. At that time, the reason for the warming up and expansion of the Earth was unclear. Our subsequent work found that the reason for this is the energy released during nuclear reactions of hydrogen in the Earth’s core. The rise of large plumes in the continental regions, which originated on the border with the core, causes outpouring of basaltic magma, an example of which are gigantic Siberian traps in thickness. The processes occurring under the influence of nuclear reactions in the Earth’s core are ultimately the root cause of the origin of many magmatic and hydrothermal ore deposits, in particular nickel, platinum, palladium, gold and others. The reactions of cold nuclear fusion and transmutation of elements are the main energy source of global geological processes.
Theoretically and experimentally established, as well as confirmed by natural facts, the possibility of synthesis and transmutation of elements not only in stars, but also in terrestrial conditions, is of fundamental importance for geochemistry and cosmochemistry.
Currently, studies of nuclear reactions at low energies are intensively conducted in many countries of the world, hundreds of articles and dozens of patents have been published, and international and national scientific conferences are held annually. Unfortunately, this branch of science in our country has not yet received government support. Work on this topic is associated with risk, so it was not included in the research plans and was not funded. The publication of works that run counter to traditional ideas is extremely difficult, and in Russian magazines – until recently, it was actually banned. The lack of articles in leading journals was the reason for rejecting applications at the RFBR – an alternative source of funds for basic research. For 30 years, not a single cold fusion project has been supported.
It is also worth noting that the formation of this direction coincided with two decades of perestroika, which very seriously affected the financing of science. Private investors are not interested in investing in projects that do not guarantee quick returns. For these reasons, we conducted expensive studies at our own expense. Almost all groups working on this subject were in the same position. Many of them disbanded, and some researchers went abroad. The continuation of such a scientific and technical policy will lead to a technological lag in our country. The success of the Russian enthusiasts will not be enough for development. Russia will have to pay to foreign patent holders for each kilowatt-hour of energy produced by the new technology.
IA REGNUM, providing authors with the opportunity to popularize their developments, makes an important contribution to the development of this breakthrough direction.
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This is a re-post of an article published May 19, 2019 by Vitaly Alekseevich Kirkinsky at REGNUM and presented the 30th anniversary of the announcement of cold fusion.
Dr. Irina Savvatimova is one of the giants of Russian LENR research able to attend the 30-year celebration organized by the Coordination Council on the Cold Nuclear Transmutation Problem of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (RANS).
Dr. Savvatimova is a pioneer of the glow discharge method to generate LENR and her group was one of the first to report transmutation elements from this type of experiment. She is also a research scientist at the Scientific Industrial Association LUCH working to generate isotopes for nuclear medicine.
Participants in the conference of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences “Cold fusion – 30 years: results and prospects” on March 23, 2019 in Moscow. From left to right: A.S. Sverchkov, L.V. Ivanitskaya, A.V. Nikolaev, A.A. Kornilov, A.I. Klimov, I.B. Savvatimova, A.G. Parkhomov, A.A. Prosvirnov, V.I. Grachev, S.N. Gaydamak, S.A. Flower.
She had already been working with glow discharge experiments and had defended a thesis on changing the structure and physico-mechanical properties of materials irradiated with hydrogen and helium ions when she heard about the announcement of Drs. Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons.
She quickly switched gears and began researching cold fusion, along with two new collaborative partners.
In this exclusive interview, Ruby asks Dr. Irina Savvatimova about her first experiments and the early history of CMNS research she experienced.
IS At this time, I was investigating the behavior of materials under irradiation with hydrogen and helium ions with an energy of less than 1 Kev as applied to the first wall of a fusion reactor.
The anomalous effects of changing of the density of various types of defects by optical, electron transmission and auto-ion microscopy were detected. The formation of irregular clusters of vacancies and interstitial atoms, an increase in the dislocation density by orders of magnitude, the formation of pores in the volume and blisters on the surface were founded. An increase in the diffusion rate by a factor 4–5 diffusion coefficients was discovered.
Studies of changes in
the creep rate of metals and alloys under irradiation with hydrogen and helium
ions were also of interest, since these changes in ion irradiation conditions
correlated with available creep data under the conditions of reactor
irradiation of these materials.
I talk about this in such detail, because I immediately thought that an interesting result, what Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons performed as Cold Fusion, could be obtained in a gas discharge – but not in electrolysis. I was ready to conduct experiments, because there was the real gas discharge installation in working condition, the palladium and other materials, as well as the hydrogen and deuterium gases. The parameters of the gas discharge to give the maximum anomalous effects of changes in the structure and properties were also determined.
Then I got a telephone call from Jan Kucherov on March 24, at the same time of discussion with my colleague V. Romodanov, about the possibility of working on Cold Fusion at our institute. He believed that no one would be interested.
Jan Kucherov asked permission to see the installation of the gas discharge, which I used at the time.
I asked him: “Will we do Cold Fusion?”. After a pause, he replied:
The next day, Jan Kucherov and Alexander Karabut came to see the
By this time, all three of us had already defended dissertations and had some experimental experience.
Yan Kucherov and Alexander Karabut worked with high-power plasma installations, but their wish to conduct experiments on that equipment was not supported by the head of the laboratory, who feared an accident. So I was lucky to start working with such team of like-minded people.
We agreed that we would begin work with the existing gas discharge installation which I had already worked with. Devices for measuring radiation were found in other laboratories of the institute. A week later, we had measurement systems with gas-discharge – helium-3 sensors for neutrons detecting, radiometers with ZnS scintillators calibrated using a Pu-Be neutron source, and recording devices and oscilloscopes that made it possible to distinguish neutron signals from other pulses.
The first series of experiments on palladium was successful. We registered neutrons. It was very exciting. We could not sleep at night. Experiments on other materials (Mo, stainless steel ..) gave the smaller quantitative effect. It was understandable, because a smaller amount of deuterium could be absorbed under the same conditions. The qualitative picture was repeated when we changed the material of sample – the object of irradiation by deuterium.
The head of my laboratory, Babad-Zakhryapin, reported on the first positive results of the experiments at the scientific council of the Institute a couple of weeks after the start of the experiments. A couple of months later, we tried to publish an article in the journal Successes of Physical Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Further experiments have deepened research on the measurement of radiation by all methods available to us.
Later we learned that many groups in Russia began trying to conduct experiments on Cold Fusion, using their own techniques and/or improving electrolysis, for example, and subsequently applying plasma electrolysis.
For example, a group led by Academician B.B. Deryagin recorded neutrons during the splitting of heavy water ice back in 1986. Andrey Lipson worked with B.B. Deryagin, and later, he continued this research in CF field.
Another very vivid example is Academician A.N. Baraboshkin. Official science took a very wary direction of Cold Fusion, but A.N. Baraboshkin ventured to fund a Cold Fusion project from the funds of the Electrochemistry Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and tried to unite several groups of researchers from different institutions, among them was our group. Funding was very modest, but the fact that the Academy of Sciences supported our research helped us.
Baraboshkin organized a section on cold fusion at the all-Union seminar “Chemistry and Hydrogen Technology” (Hydrogen-91, Zarechny) in 1991, which was attended by representatives of the Ural Polytechnic Institute, Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Ekaterinburg, Institute of Physics- Tsarev V.A. Lugansk Machine-Building Institute – PI Golubnichy and B.I. Guzhovsky from VNIIEF Sarov, and A. Lipson of the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
V.F. Zelensky, Director of Kharkov Physico-Technical Ukrain, Ukrain, also actively supported this area and he himself participated in experiments.
Yuri Bazhytov founded the firm “Erzion”. He experimented with plasma electrolysis in confirmation of his Erzion theory. Yuri Bazhutov was the main organizer of the 24 Russian conferences and this is his great merit.
Since 1990, seminars have begun to be held in academic and industry institutes. And since 1991, a seminar has already operated at the Peoples’ Friendship University under the guidance of N.V. Samsonenko (now passed the 90th seminar). Activity in this area has increased.
The All-Union seminar “Hydrogen-91”, where there were more than half of the works devoted to studies on cold fusion, most of the participants had worked in this direction a long time.
The first All-Russian Conference was held in 1993. The proceedings of this conference were held under the name Cold Nuclear Fusion, and later the conference was called Cold Fusion and Nuclear Transmutation. Before the first Russian conference, a conference was held in Belarus, where we had an opportunity to report the results of work.
I want to tell about many groups which conducted own successful investigation in this area. I am not sure that it is possible at this time.
Now a lot of research groups work in LENR direction.
RUBY What have been some of the transmutation products you’ve discovered?
IS Ihad experience with a glow discharge for more than 10 years before the CF, work has already been done on studying changes in structure and properties, so for me the study of transmutation was just a more in-depth comprehensive study of the process. The study of the elemental and isotopic composition showed the appearance of elements – that were absent before the experiments – in the sample material and the structural parts of the discharge chamber.
Changes in the elemental and isotopic composition were also tested in different laboratories and institutes by all possible methods. Analysis of the elemental composition on an electron microscope (EDS) revealed the preferential location along the boundaries and sub-boundaries of the grains, where additional impurity elements that were not present in the sample – and elements in the discharge chamber that weren’t there before the experiment. This effect was discovered by our colleague Alexei Senchukov when analyzing samples using a Hitachi electron microscope. He significantly increased the duration of the recording of the spectra, which had not been done before by anyone. Tuning the device to identify specific elements, it was found that various impurity elements can be localized in different places (Transaction of Fusion Technology –ICCF-4,1993// ANS, December 1994// Savvatimova et al, Cathode change after Glow Discharge, 389-394).
The such elements as Sc, V, Cd, In, P, Cl, Br, Ge, As, Kr, Sr, Y, Ru are never present in the discharge chamber, butthese elements were found in the Pd foils after experiments with different ions (H, D, Ar) almost always.
Changes in the isotopic composition of samples irradiated with hydrogen and deuterium were studied by mass spectrometry, Secondary Ions Mass-spectrometry, Spark Mass-spectrometry, Thermoionisation Mass-spectrometry. Several elements were observed using SMS with an isotope ratio deviating from the natural isotope abundance by a factor of two or three, such as 6Li/7Li;10B/11B; 12C/13C; 60Ni/61Ni/62Ni; 40Ca/44Ca; and 90Zr/91Zr. Deviation from the natural ratio of Ag isotopes 109/107 as 3/1 to 9/1, natural composition is 1/1) in palladium cathode. The significant change of the Pd isotopic composition was observed using SIMS also.
So, the elemental and isotopic structure of the cathode materials before and after Glow Discharge (GD) experiments were analyzed by EDS, SNMS and SMS. The isotope shift tendency in Pd and Pd alloys and Ag was observed. The comparison of the quantity of impurity elements change and generation was made.
The four same groups of
certain impurities were repeatedly formed after Deuteron irradiation in similar
conditions: light – with masses of 6, 7 10, 11 19, 20, 22; of middle masses
near 0,5 matrix element; (± 10) of matrix element – Cd, Sn, Ag and of heavy masses
(120 -140) Sn, Te, Ba).
The quantity of additional impurities, which was found after ion irradiation in Pd and Pd alloys, can to show in the following row with decreasing: Pd, alloys PdPTW, PdNi, PdRu, PdCu.
The qualitative correlation of the maximum increase of impurities in the cathodes with the minimum heat output during GD experiment was noticed for temperature interval less 200oC (ICCF-7).
Later, similar studies on
changes in the elemental and isotopic composition were carried out on titanium
However, all the effects of
transmutation with an increase in the content of individual elements up to 100
times or more, with a change in the isotopic composition, could not convince
critics that such changes were a reality.
Only an experiment with radioactive material could convince these people, so it was another happy occasion when John Dash invited me to Portland State University to conduct research with uranium.
As a result of this work, we were able to show the presence of alpha, beta and gammas. The alpha activity of Uranium increased after irradiation with hydrogen and deuterium ions about 2-4 times, and beta and gamma emission increased from 10 to 60%.
Emission registration on films during glow discharge experiments ICCF-9 [.pdf]
Along with the fascinating increase of alpha activity, an increase in the amount of thorium (EDS) and a decrease in uranium is observed by chemical analysis (MIT) and by observing the intensity of peaks in the spectra of characteristic radiation of uranium (x-ray data) decrease.
The first publications of these results were reported to ICCF-3 (1992), ICCF-4(1993) and Russian Conferences and Seminars, Russian “Letters in Journal of Technical physics” 1990
Possible Nuclear Reactions Mechanisms at Glow Discharge in Deuterium ICCF-3 [.pdf]
Cathode Material Change after Deuterium Glow Discharge Experiments ICCF-4 [.pdf]
The presence of low-energy nuclear reactions was confirmed by the GD low-energy influence. Some observations were:
– Significant increase in additional elements
ranging 10 -1000 times was found.
– Isotopic deviation in materials (Pd, Ti, W, and
U) and the increase in the additional impurity elements from 2 up to 100 times
– The majority of the newly formed elements, found
after the GD switch off were found in certain local zones (“hot” spots, micro
melting points) on the cathode material surface.
– Post-experimental isotopes with masses of 169,
170, 171, 178, and 181 (less than W and Ta isotopes) were found with the help
– The isotopic changes continue to occur for at
least 3–5 months after the GD exposure. Separate isotopes with masses less than
W and Ta isotopes have grown by factors ranging 5–1000 times.
– The change in alpha, beta, gamma radioactivity
caused by the GD was observed in Uranium.
.The correlation between X-ray emission data and the thermal ionization mass-spectrometry. Data for the same isotopes is shown in the W foils. The comparison of the mass spectra and the gamma spectra shown to the existence of Yb and Hf, isotopes in W after experiments in Deuterium.
The collection of effects confirms availability of nuclear transmutations under exposure to GD (Glow Discharge) low-energy ions bombardment in materials and in other processes.
The GD low-energy influence can be used in new power engineering and new technologies (e.g., isotope production). The described effects should be paid more attention to.
I studied structural changes and the physico-mechanical properties of materials under irradiation with hydrogen, deuterium and helium ions in a plasma discharge with hydrogen ion energies of less than 1 keV deuterium as applied to the first wall of a thermonuclear reactor. These studies were carried out at a gas discharge installation.
I studied these changes because presumably 95% of the ions bombarding the first wall of a thermonuclear reactor should have had H and D ions with energies of less than 1 keV.
Anomalous effects have been observed. Including, there was a blackening of the X-ray film located outside the discharge chamber. However, everyone said that this was not possible with ion energies of less than 1 KeV.
RUBY Could you describe the design of the experiments you performed, what metals you’ve used for cathodes, and how you’ve measured?
The greatest number of experiments was carried out on palladium. After the first experiments the studies were conducted on an EDS electron microscope.
The presence of low-energy nuclear reactions in Glow discharge was confirmed by formation in W (tungsten) of isotopes with mass less than matrix mass (ytterbium and hafnium with 169 -178 masses)
– Significant increase in additional elements ranging 10 -1000 times was found (– Isotopic deviation in materials (Pd, Ti, W, and U) and the increase in the additional impurity elements from 2 up to 100 times was discovered.
– The majority of the newly formed elements, found after the GD switch off were found in certain local zones (“hot” spots, micro melting points, microexplosions) on the cathode material surface.
– Post-experimental isotopes with masses of 169, 170, 171, 178, and 181 (less than W and Ta isotopes) were found with the help of TIMS.
– The isotopic changes continue to occur for at least 3–5 months after the GD exposure.
Separate isotopes with masses less than W and Ta isotopes have grown by factors ranging 5–1000 times.
– The same energy peaks in gamma-spectra occur during and after the GD current switch-off.
– The Significant change in alpha, beta, gamma radioactivity in uranium after GD in Deuterium and Hydrogen was observed.The increase of alpha, beta, gamma-emission are kept without change during of the duration of measurement – 1 year (after 2, 4, 5, 12 months)
– Post experiments weak gamma, X-ray and beta- emissions were detected.
(2) The correlation between the gamma and X-ray emission data and the thermal ionization mass-spectrometry data for the same isotopes is shown in the W foils.
The comparison of the mass spectra and the gamma spectra points to the existence of the following isotopes Ytterbium and Hafnium: 169, 170, 171m, 172, 178
(3) The collection of effects confirms availability of nuclear transformations under exposure to GD low-energy ions bombardment in materials and in other processes.
(4) The GD low-energy influence can be used in new power engineering and new technologies (e.g., isotope production). The described effects should be paid more attention to.
RUBY It’s been speculated that some of the transmutation elements found are from a fusion – and then fission – reaction. Is that probable in your mind?
IS Yes, of course. Some variants of possible reactions are in our articles.
RUBY You have found transmutations of elements in localized spots, and also at grain boundaries. What does this experimental evidence tell you in regards to a theory of this reaction?
ISYes, it is true. The majority of the newly formed elements, found after the GD switch off were found in certain local zones (“hot” spots, micro melting points, micro-explosions) on the cathode material surface.
It is clear that low-energy plasma initiates the processes of nuclear transmutations.
There are many theories and hypotheses, with the help of some of which, one can explain a part of the observed anomalies. But in the real material there are a lot of processes being performed, and it is very difficult to take into account all of them. Therefore, a single theory or hypothesis cannot explain the whole set of processes.
So in places where defects and inhomogeneities accumulate, there can be a change in the density of the of bombarding ions and a change in the electric field strength to high voltages leading to a microexplosion. In the resulting pores in the process of ion bombardment, the pressure can increase to hundreds of atmospheres. Grain boundaries can trigger an acceleration effect. This is if you approach the explanation from the standpoint of interactions at the macro level.
RUBYWhy is this research so important for the world?
IS These studies in the field of “subliminal (as my colleague Rodionov Boris says) energies” could help to understand many natural phenomena and solve the problems of contamination of the planet with radioactive waste, as well as help in the intensification of many technological processes. It is also possible to use this knowledge to expressly predict the behavior of materials under irradiation conditions.
Apparently, the society is not yet ready to use LENR processes for solving energy problems. The society, or those who rule it, does not need a success in solving the energy problem on the planet.
For a while I did not have the opportunity to work in the direction of Cold Fusion. I was engaged in a project to develop targets for the generation of isotopes for nuclear medicine.
If the situation allows, then I would like to apply the Cold Fusion tricks to solve real-world projects that could be useful now.
RUBY Could you say a bit what it was like to work with Drs. Karabut and Kucharov? Describe their contribution to condensed matter nuclear science.
ISI thank fate that it developed so that we began to work together and everyone was able to do something that was not able or did not know another. Result – the general inventions and patents, good publications. Jean-Pierre Vejie after our reports at a conference in Donetsk visited our laboratory. He was present at an experiment. After the visit to laboratory He suggested to publish our article in Physics Letters. At that time He was some of their editors of this magazine. We well supplemented each other at the initial stage of work.
If collaboration was continued slightly longer, perhaps progress would be more considerable.
Yan Kucherov knew better than others nuclear physics and was an arbitrator in these questions. Its first hypotheses of simultaneous course of processes of synthesis and disintegration are reflected in the publication at a conference in Nagoya. A.Karabut modernized the glow discharge installation for estimation of thermal effect. They competently gathered a measuring chain for registration of neutrons and gamma. Later Karabut could decipher possible decay chains in gamma spectra. This results was confirmed also by mass spectrometry.
RUBY Dr. Savvatimova, can you tell us what you are working on now?
ISFor a while I did not have the opportunity to work in the direction of Cold Fusion. I was engaged in a project to develop targets for the generation of isotopes for nuclear medicine.
If the situation allows, then I would like to apply the Cold Fusion tricks to solve real-world projects that could be useful now.
RUBYWhy is this research so important for the world?
-The collection of effects (alpha, beta, gamma-emission on the uranium) confirms availability of nuclear transformations under exposure to GD low-energy ions bombardment in materials.
– The low energy nuclear reactions (subthreshold nuclear reaction) are exist. These process can be used in the different fields of science and technology. Glow discharge low-energy impact can be used in new power engineering and new technologies (e.g., isotopes production, creating special alloys with improved properties, which cannot be create by other method).
The described effects should be paid more attention to. Unfortunately, the society doesn’t think it needs these achievements now (or part of society).
Understandably, for improvement success and great achievements, the good group of researchers and modern equipment and financial support are necessary.
The great Russian poet written ” It is pity to live in this beautiful time there will be neither you nor me”.
1. Karabut A. B., Kucherov Ya. R., Savvatimova I.B. Physics Letters A, 170, 265-272 (1992).
2. Karabut A.B., Kucherov Ya.R., Savvatimova I.B. Proc. ICCF-3, 1992, Nagoya, p.165. Possible Nuclear Reactions Mechanisms at Glow Discharge in Deuterium [.pdf]
Karabut A. B., Kucherov Ya. R., Savvatimova I.B. Fus.Tech., Dec. 1991, v. 20(4.), part 2, p.294.
Savvatimova I., Kucherov Ya. and Karabut A., Trans. of Fus. Tech.: v.26, 4T (1994), pp. 389-394
5. Savvatimova I.B, Karabut A. B. Proc., ICCF5, Monte-Carlo, 1995, p.209-212; p.213-222 Radioactivity of the Cathode Samples after Glow Discharge [.pdf]
6. Karabut A.B, Kucherov Ya. R., Savvatimova I.B ICCF5, Monte-Carlo, 1995, p.223-226; p.241 Nuclear Reaction Products Registration on the Cathode after Glow Discharge [.pdf]
Savvatimova I.B, Karabut A. B. Poverhnost (Surface), V. 1, Moscow: RAN, 1996, p.63-75;.76-81
The 22nd International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF22 convenes September 8-13, 2019 in Assisi, Italy. To Regsiter, go to the International Society of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science website at iscmns.org.
This is a re-post of a modified google-translated article by Sergey Tsvetkov published April 8, 2019 at REGNUMhttps://regnum.ru/news/2606951.html. Any use of materials is allowed only if there is a hyperlink to REGNUM news agency.
The prototype of the Soviet prospective cold fusion reactor on deuterated titanium was created in May 1989 by the head of the institute of the USSR Minsredmash NIKIET N. A. Dollezhal. The collapse of the USSR delayed the revolution in global nuclear energy by almost 30 years.
A report by Sergey Alekseevich Tsvetkov, a member of the Coordination Council of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences on the issue of Cold Transmutation, “My opinion on cold nuclear fusion” at the 30-year-old Cold Synthesis Conference: Results and Prospects held on March 23, 2019 in Moscow.
* * *
Sergey Tsvetkov is a nuclear physicist, a specialist in nuclear reactor physics, the author of a promising project for a cold fusion reactor on deuterated titanium, the development of which began in the Sverdlovsk branch of the Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering (SF NIKIET) of the USSR Ministry of Medium Machine Building.
* * *
“If there was no cold fusion, it should have been invented. ”
My report is devoted to the results that I received in the field of cold fusion in 30 years of work, practically from the very moment when Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced their discovery on March 23, 1989.
Fig. 1. Solemn rally in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk region on the launch at the Beloyarsk NPP them. IV Kurchatov BN-600 fast neutron reactor in April 1980
How it all began. Here, in the city of Zarechny, it all started when the newspaper “Izvestia” on March 25, 1989 published the article “The Discovery of the Century or …” by a famous international journalist, correspondent for the United States and Great Britain, Alexander Shalnev, in which he spoke about a sensational press. conference at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, USA.
Fig. 2. A clipping from the Izvestia newspaper dated March 25, 1989 with Alexander Shalnov’s article “The Discovery of the Century or …”
“THE DISCOVERY OF THE CENTURY OR …”
NEW YORK. (Sob. Correspondent. “News”). ABC began its major news release with a report on a press conference held at the University of Utah. What was announced, and in fact – a sensation. According to Briton Martin Fleischmann and American Stanley Pons, they managed to discover a way to carry out nuclear fusion under the simplest conditions.
If this is so, if further experiments confirm the discovery, then a giant step will be made to the long-standing dream of many scientists – to use fusion as a cheap, reliable and almost safe source of energy. The fusion reaction proceeds with light nuclei, and the fission reaction, which is now used in conventional nuclear reactors, is in heavy nuclei. The advantage of fusion as an energy source is that any water abounds in the deuterium used in this process. Another major advantage – the waste of this process is scanty.
The scientists of the world have long been fighting the problem of fusion. According to the Washington Post newspaper, hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent, so that using the most sophisticated and at the same time very cumbersome equipment to create conditions that would resemble those that exist on the Sun in a giant nuclear synthesizer. In the meantime, the result is the following: to carry out such experiments, the energy is spent much more than it is created.
The method of Fleischmann and Pons is extraordinarily simple. This experiment, said the vice-president of the University of Utah, is similar to those conducted by first-year students using two electrodes immersed in a liquid. Scientists themselves say that, according to their forecasts, it will be relatively easy to transform the discovery into a technology that can be used in practical needs – for heat, for example. However, they add, “there is still work to do.”
In American scientific circles, the press conference in Utah did not cause a definite reaction. Attention was drawn to the fact that it was arranged before other scientists were notified of the discovery, and before the discovery report was submitted for publication. It’s unusual.
Secondly, there is a suspicion that the practical benefits of the discovery will be much less than the authors predict. According to Dennis Keef from the University of Berkeley (California), the experiment is worth it to continue on. But, says the scientist, himself a specialist in fusion, it is unrealistic to wait for substantial practical results: after all, the experiments that are conducted still produce a very small amount of heat, which, of course, is not enough to bring boiling water to steam. .
Skepticism, it seems to me, has spread faster than enthusiasm: neither ABC nor other TV companies report on the discovery anymore. Very poorly reacted and print.
Further, a comment was published by Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences Boris Borisovich Kadomtsev, a well-known specialist in plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion.
The correspondent of Izvestia asked academician B. Kadomtsev to comment on this message. He said:
“The message from New York is, of course, sensational. But the scientific information in it is too small for any definite conclusions. In order for the fusion reactions to occur, the nuclei must come to a very close distance. To do this, they must have a greater relative speed. Therefore, a very high technique is required for an intensive reaction. Very weak reactions can occur under less extreme conditions. For example, neutron generators use a metal target saturated with tritium located at room temperature. This beam strikes a beam of accelerated deuterium nuclei, which with low probability can react with tritium nuclei. The information of the correspondent is not enough to make a conclusion about the reliability of the discovery. It is only clear that if the reaction actually proceeds, then it is clearly weak, and such a process can hardly be used to generate energy. ”
This small article was duplicated in the Pravda newspaper, and then, publications appeared in the Literary Gazette and many others. In April 1989, in the 15th issue of the weekly “Echo of the Planet”, a large article ” “Cold Thermonuclear” — the discovery of the century?” was published; showing what results were obtained.
Fig. 3. The article “Cold thermonuclear – discovery of the century” in the weekly “Echo of the Planet”, No. 15, April 1989
On the basis of these newspaper publications, already in early April our group in the SF NIKIET was involved in the verification of the results. But we immediately went on our way.
At the same time, at the end of April, a “refuting” statement of the American Physical Society is published, and in May a number of tendentious newspaper publications appear, stating that Fleischmann and Pons’ data are incorrect, that they cannot measure heat, that, in fact, there is no tritium, etc. As they say, “all dogs were hanged on them”. They tried, of course, all this time to fight back . An attempt was even made to create the Institute of Cold Fusion for which a lot of money was allocated. However, the institute did not last long and was closed at the end of 1990. By 1991, pressure was exerted on the troublemakers so that Martin Fleischmann returned to Britain, and Stanley Pons had to resign from the University of Utah and move to work in France, having emigrated from the United States.
On the history of Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons’ harassment, I wrote an article that was published on December 12, 2017 in IA REGNUM entitled “About the pseudo-scientificness of cold fusion: in defense of Martin Fleischman and Stanley Pons’ electrochemists”, in which, I think, I was able to show that it was not a scientific criticism, but a harassment, the initiators of which didn’t disdain from either outright lies or purposeful falsification of results during the reproduction of the experiment. The April “denials” of the American Physical Society and the Massachusetts University of Technology were published a month after the March 23 press conference, while the reaction from Fleischmann and Pons was launched only on the 72nd day. For some reason, at first, nobody paid attention to this circumstance. “Examinations” were frankly “custom-made”, which later became clear, thanks to the investigation of Eugene Mallove. Even the accusations against Fleischmann and Pons, that they held a conference before they published a scientific article and allegedly deceived their co-author Professor Steven Jones, did not correspond to reality.
The main conclusion of my article is
“Cold nuclear fusion is not pseudoscience. Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons made a scientific discovery worthy of the Nobel Prize. ”
So I think today, and so we thought in 1989, we are convinced of the correctness of Fleischmann and Pons in their own experiments.
On the economics of cold fusion
We now turn to the question: why is it advantageous to engage in cold nuclear fusion for energy?
In preparing the report, I found such a table in the literature.
The way to get energy
Times greater than previous row energy
Burning oil (coal)
In the fission of uranium-235
22.9 x 10^6
In the fusion of hydrogen nuclei
117.5 x 10^6
The energy of a substance according to the formula E=mc^2
29 x 10^9
Tab. 1. The amount of energy released in a certain amount of a substance with different methods of production.
With the complete burning of oil or coal, 11.6 kWh / kg is obtained. When uranium-235 is divided in atomic reactors by 1 kg, almost 2 million times more energy is released than by burning oil or coal. In the fusion of hydrogen nuclei, the energy is 5 times greater than in the fission of uranium-235.
And if you manage to release the total energy of a substance according to Einstein’s formula E = m · c2, then you can get 247 times more energy per kilogram of substance in relation to the fusion of hydrogen nuclei.
Next, I analyzed the estimate of the energy released during the fusion of hydrogen nuclei, and it turned out that the only thermonuclear reaction involving hydrogen that could give such an amount of energy per gram of substance, refers to a pair of tritium-protium. As a result, helium-4 (4He) and 19.814 MeV of energy are obtained:
3H + 1H = 4He + ϒ + 19.814 MeV
This reaction totals 474.936 GJ/g. And we, like Fleischmann and Pons, from the very beginning considered as a source of energy the fusion of deuterium nuclei (d + d reaction), which occurs inside the crystal lattice of a metal
d + d = 3He (0, 82 MeV) + n (2.45 MeV) + 3.270 MeV (1 channel)
= T (1.01 MeV) + p (3.02 MeV) + 4.033 MeV (Channel 2)
This fusion reaction is possible through two channels. The first channel is the formation of helium-3 (3He) with a neutron (n) with the release of 3.27 MeV of energy, and the second channel with the formation of tritium (T) and a proton (p) with the release of 4.033 MeV of energy.
For this classical nuclear fusion reaction, when the first and second channels are equally probable, the amount of released energy per gram of molecular deuterium is 87.45 GJ/g (G is Giga = 10^9), which is much less than given in Table 1 (423 GJ/g).
In their work, Fleischmann and Pons drew attention to the fact that they have tritium (T) recorded, as compared with neutrons, 11–14 orders of magnitude more than with the classical d + d reaction. If we take into account this increase in tritium yield in their reaction, confirmed later by the work of the Indian nuclear scientists, who had 7–11 orders of magnitude more tritium output than the neutron yield, then the energy per gram of molecular deuterium is 96.57 GJ/g . Thus, with this fusion reaction, one gram of deuterium can become a continuous source of heat with a capacity of 3.062 kW for a whole year. It is wonderful.
When we learned about the press conference of Fleischmann and Pons, we, a group of employees of the Sverdlovsk branch of the Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET branch named after N. A. Dollezhal – the famous NII-8), worked with titanium hydride. At that time, we were making a high-pressure hydrogen complex with hydrogen pressures up to 400 atmospheres. We had titanium hydride on hand, and expensive palladium, as they say, had to be searched for. Therefore, we took titanium and decided to test it in our own way by saturating titanium with deuterium from the gas phase. We ordered deuterium and tried to work with it at high pressures.
Fig. 4. Top view of the Beloyarsk NPP in Zarechny. The orange arrow indicates the complex of buildings of the SF NIKIET, inscription “NNF” marked where the group of Sergei Tsvetkov began work developing the cold nuclear fusion reactor in April 1989.
The question arises: why we immediately chose titanium intuitively, and then continued to work with it, despite the fact that Fleischmann and Pons used palladium, which is saturated with deuterium during the electrolysis process to produce palladium-deuteride. Discussing the question of how to intensify the process, we came to the conclusion that we need to introduce as much hydrogen or deuterium into the metal crystal lattice as possible in order to get recorded results on heat and on products of the proposed nuclear reaction. And here the following table helped us (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5. Table of binary hydrides in the periodic system from the book “Metal hydrides”. M. Atomizdat, 1973, p. 11.
Metal hydrides were very well researched in the 1960s. In 1973, we had a fundamental American monograph on this topic (see Metal hydrides. Edited by V. Muller et al. Translated from English. – M .: Atomizdat, 1973. – 432 p.). In this book there is a special periodic table, which shows which metal hydrides can form and in what quantities they can absorb hydrogen (Fig. 5). It can be seen from this table that titanium, zirconium and niobium form binary hydrides in which there are up to two hydrogen atoms per metal atom, and, say, palladium and nickel hydrides per metal atom can absorb no more than one hydrogen atom. Thus, it became obvious the advantage of working with titanium in comparison with palladium: titanium absorbs twice the amount of hydrogen, and, consequently, the fusion reactions could be expected at least twice as much.
We now consider Table 2, in which nickel, palladium, titanium, zirconium and niobium are compared in density, content in the earth’s crust, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and cost of these metals.
How many times heavier is Ti?
Content in earth’s crust,% by weight.
Heat capacity, J/ kmol
Heat conductivity, (300 K) W/(m*K)
Cost as of 09/19/17, USD/kg
Atomic mass, g/mol
Tab. 2. Comparison of Pd, Ti, Ni, Zr and Nb according to several characteristics.
It is obvious that titanium clearly stands out against the background of other metals: it is the lightest of all, in the earth’s crust it is the most, its heat capacity and thermal conductivity are rather small, and its cost is low. It is comparable to the cost of nickel, but in terms of its prevalence in the crust, even no attention should be paid to nickel. Thus, it turned out that titanium can and should be used. These were the reasons we had to do titanium.
Most recently, I found my first job in the USSR to saturate titanium with hydrogen. Employees of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, Yu. V. Baymakov and O. A. Lebedev, published an article titled “Titanium and Hydrogen” in the collection “Proceedings of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute” No. 223 for 1963, in which they reported on the thermal effect obtained during the formation of titanium hydride on titanium powder.
Fig. 6. A plot of temperature versus time for heating titanium in hydrogen and a setup diagram for titanium saturation with hydrogen from the article by Yu.V. Baymakov and O. A. Lebedev “Titanium and hydrogen” of 1963.
In the experiment with the formation of hydride, excess heat was recorded in the amount of 16.7 kcal / mol. But the calculated data, which are given in the article:
Fig. 7. Calculation of excess heat generation during the formation of titanium hydride from the article “Titanium and hydrogen” by Yu. V. Baymakov and O. A. Lebedev in 1963
The formation of hydride takes 120 kcal and 103 kcal is spent on the dissociation of hydrogen molecules, that is, the formation of atomic hydrogen. But in the end, all the same, there remains excess heat equal to 14% – this is quite a lot. If we calculate the excess power factor, that is, the ratio of heat expended (120.5 kcal) to excess heat (16.7 kcal), then this will be slightly more than seven. This feature has a titanium, which has been undeservedly ignored in recent studies on cold nuclear fusion.
On the basis of the equipment and materials that we prepared for the high-pressure hydrogen complex, in April 1989, the first experimental setup was created to obtain nuclear fusion reactions in deuterated titanium (Fig. 8).
Fig. 8. The first installation of 1989 for the study of cold nuclear fusion in SF NIKIET. On the left – the high-pressure gas part, on the right – an experimental cell with detectors.
Let me remind you that this story takes place at the Sredmash Research Institute (Ministry of Medium Machine-Building of the USSR), at the Sverdlovsk branch of the Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering (SF NIKIET), which is the site of the experimental reactor of the Moscow NIKIET them. N. A. Dollezhal engaged in the creation of nuclear energy facilities and installations for military and civil purposes.
We expected that we could get very high deuterium pressure, for which a special container was prepared at the facility. It was assumed that we can get a hydrogen pressure of 400 atmospheres. We thought that if we do not get a nuclear fusion reaction at low pressures, then we can achieve a positive effect at high pressure. But this was not necessary. In Fig. 9 that the experimental cell is surrounded by various detectors. We had several systems for measuring nuclear radiation: two detectors were used for gamma radiation, there were track neutron detectors (marked in figure 2).
Fig. 9. Layout of the sensors of the neutron and gamma quanta registration system.
It was a thin mica-muskavit with a diameter of several centimeters with thin layers of uranium-235 and neptunium-237 applied to it. The distance at which these track detectors were located was calculated so that the 2.45 MeV neutrons that Fleischmann and Pons registered were slowed down to such energies when interacting with distilled water as a moderator – (8), so that mica Muskavit to leave their tracks of fission fragments of uranium or neptunium by slow neutrons. Gas-discharge helium-3 counters were also used in neutron detectors (7). Moreover, the detectors for gamma radiation and neutrons were duplicated, for example, up to 15 counters were used in the same neutron detector for neutron registration. Therefore, the registration system was very clear and reliable, with high resolution of neutrons and gamma radiation. The synchronous operation of two sensors independent of each other meant that not random artifacts were recorded, but really neutrons and gamma radiation.
In Fig. 10 shows our very first reactor.
Fig. 10. The first reactor for the production of cold fusion reactions on deuterated titanium, designed in the SF NIKIET in 1989.
A sample of cylindrical titanium hydride with a diameter of 9.5 mm (1) and a length of 70 mm was placed in a stainless tube with an internal diameter of 10 mm. Chromel-alumelic (XA) thermocouples in a sealed stainless steel case with a diameter of 1.5 mm (6, 7) were inserted into the tube on both sides. The entire titanium sample outside the tube was surrounded on all sides by a Peltier calorimeter (2), which was made on the basis of chromel-alumelium thermocouples. The calorimeter was calibrated using an independent heat source, for which, instead of a titanium sample, a model was inserted from a nichrome heater to which current was applied, voltage was measured, its power consumption was calculated. We measured the calorimeter’s response to such heating and thus calibrated it by the excess heat at operating temperatures.
In Fig. 11 shows the results of the first studies obtained on the titanium-deuterium system (Ti-D).
Fig. 11. Studies on the titan-deuterium system, May 19–20, 1989.
This happened on May 19–20, 1989. Here it can be seen that, in addition to excess heat, high temperatures (up to 800ºС and above), gamma radiation and neutrons were recorded. And the letters “n” circled on the graph show the moments of synchronous operation of two neutron sensors located opposite each other. Between the sensors was a titanium-deuterium system.
The experimental results obtained in the spring of 1989 unequivocally proved that the cold nuclear fusion phenomenon exists, and not only in the “palladium-deuterium” system, with which Fleischmann and Pons worked. We were busy saturating titanium from the gas phase. Our idea was that all these reactions take place in those metals and alloys that absorb and release deuterium. That is, we made this reactor in order to obtain the following cycle: saturation with deuterium, then degassing of titanium deuteride — pumping, and neutrons and gamma radiation were also recorded during pumping.
In Fig. 12 shows the results that we have obtained.
Fig. 12. Pressure change, titanium sample temperature and heat flux.
This is where the fun begins. If we compare the heat flux from the titanium sample at the saturation of titanium with deuterium and during the degassing of titanium deuteride – pumping, that is, the release of deuterium from titanium, then the ratio of the heat released during saturation to the heat spent during pumping will be about two (1.96). Thus, when deuterium is absorbed, a lot of heat is released, and when it is pumped out, heat is absorbed, but in smaller quantities. This is the first work that showed that when titanium is saturated with deuterium, excess heat is produced, which is released when titanium hydride is formed and the nuclear fusion reaction accompanies it.
The maximum heat release in the first cycle of experiments reached 39.3W. On one gram of titanium, it generates 2.6 W/g. The value is not very high, but it was received, reliably recorded and well calculated.
According to the results of these works, we made two applications for copyright certificates on the method of performing the reaction of low-temperature nuclear fusion, which was carried out by saturation and degassing. We had a hypothesis that at high saturation of titanium with deuterium, phase transitions occur in titanium deuteride, and at phase transitions the structure of the crystal lattice of titanium changes. And we in our first papers tried to check this hypotheses. It turned out that the majority of neutrons and gamma-rays are recorded at the very moment when the titanium-deuterium system passed through the beta/gamma-deuteride phase boundary of titanium. It is on this way of implementing the nuclear fusion reaction using the phase transition from the beta phase to the gamma phase and back we have applied for copyright certificate.
Further, on the basis of this method, the application “Nuclear fusion reactor” was developed. This application has already proposed to place the titanium-deuterium system under the nuclear reactor under the neutron flux in order to intensify the fusion reactions and get more heat. In the list of authors of the essay of the first article prepared for publication, a team was presented that began to deal with it: Bunkov V.V., Bondarenko N. B., Vlasov V. I., Zlokazov S. B., Kadnikov V. P., Maltsev A. G., Nikiforov A. D., Novikov P. I., Safonov V. A., Shentsev V. M., Tsvetkov S. A
Fig. 13. Abstract of the article “Experimental identification of the reaction of low-temperature fusion in the Ti-D system” 1989.
Contrary to the assurances of thermonuclear fusion specialists that the participants in this study were supposed to be overexposed by neutrons, many of these people are still alive and actively working, and only a few of them died in old age, one of whom was the liquidator of the Chernobyl accident.
Then we did the job of determining the initiation of nuclear fusion reactions in titanium deuteride when exposed to laser radiation. For this, the following scheme was developed. A quartz window reactor was made, a sample of titanium deuteride was placed in this reactor. Then air was pumped out of the reactor and a deuterium atmosphere was created with a pressure of 14 atmospheres. Through a quartz window, a pulsed laser affected the end of the sample inside the reactor, with neutrons and gamma radiation being recorded.
In September 1991, the results of this work were published in the journal of the American Nuclear Society Fusion Technology. At that time, the editor of this journal was George Miley, who suggested that we publish an article.
Fig. 14. The cover of the September issue of the journal Fusion Technology and the first page of the article “Laser-induced cold nuclear fusion in Ti-H2-D2-T2 compositions”.
At the end of this article, calculations were made of a gamma-based creation, which we recorded in the experiment, of a gamma laser.
* * *
A little about yourself, friends and colleagues
I am a nuclear physicist. I have a specialization in “Physics of Nuclear Reactors”. I graduated from the Physics and Technology Faculty of the Ural Polytechnic Institute in Sverdlovsk in 1982. I had a diploma on the subject “Study of thermal decomposition of irradiated and non-irradiated polyimides”. I have two specializations: nuclear reactor physics and isotope separation.
I started working in the Sverdlovsk branch of the Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Region. The first work on cold nuclear fusion was also carried out there. And then life was so ordered that perestroika began, various incomprehensible events began until the end. As a result, I got into the group of Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Alexei Nikolaevich Baraboshkin at the Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Then, in 1993–1995, work began that was funded by the American firm ENECO. To us, they specifically financed the work on the interaction of strontium cerate with deuterium. As a result of this work, we filed an application for the international patent “Methods and devices for producing neutrons from solid-state proton conductors”.
Aleksey Nikolaevich Baraboshkin, together with then-corresponding member Boris Vladimirovich Deryagin, tried to organize and launch the All-Union scientific research program on cold nuclear fusion in 1990-1991. It was developed in sufficient detail. 32 organizations were supposed to participate in it: 12 institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 9 branch institutes of the IEP of the USSR, 8 universities, 5 academicians of the USSR Academy of Sciences and 5 corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Sciences. At that time, they estimated this program at 15 million rubles and plus 3 million foreign currency rubles and planned to carry it out in four years. The draft program is published on the CTIA and CMM website and in the REGNUM news agency. This is about what they managed to do at the Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry of the Ural Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
In 1993, Academician A.N. Baraboshkin held a meeting on this program in order to try to conduct it through the Department of Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences. We gave reports there. I then came with the doctor of chemical sciences Kabir Akhmetovich Kaliev, and we tried to make a demonstration of his work on tungsten bronzes at FIAN. Together with academician A.N. Baraboshkin, they then tried this option. They used tungsten-sodium bronze; sodium was removed by electrolysis at high temperature in a vacuum, as a result of which channels were formed. Then deuterium was let in at room temperature. At the same time neutrons and heat increase were recorded. This work they published in Physics Letters A in 1993.
In 1995, Academician A.N. Baraboshkin died, after which our team broke up, and the “fermentation” began.
In 1996, I had a small business trip to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, where Kabir Kaliev and I repeated his experiments. Using a high-quality neutron sensor, we recorded neutron pulses. They worked out the technology for producing tungsten-sodium bronzes in order to obtain stable results, because in these experiments, instability was first observed, which, as it turned out, was associated with the structure of these bronzes. It was necessary to grow these bronzes very carefully.
After that, I made an attempt to restore and make a new installation with deuterated titanium at the Institute of Industrial Ecology of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Yekaterinburg, but it ended in nothing. Then again the Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, UB RAS. There, work was carried out on the electrolysis of molten salts of KCl, LiCl and LiD. They melted at 300ºС, for which an electrode was used, which was lowered into a container with salts. I worked with a titanium electrode and got excess heat. An article was written on this research cycle that was published for a very long time. In the end, it was published in 2005 in the journal “Rasplavy” of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
But then the “struggle for survival” began, where in fact I did not work for a long time, which in 2009 led me to be a junior researcher at the Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics at the Ural State Technical University and the Ural Polytechnic Institute in Yekaterinburg.
In 2011, I retired. And then unexpected events began: I was invited to Germany and offered to restore the installation of cold fusion on titanium. I agreed, I came to Nuremberg, and we started working there with private money.
In addition, at this time a number of works was published. Here are the most important from my point of view:
1. Igor L. Beltyukov, Nikolay B. Bondarenko, Arsen A. Janelidze, Mikhail Yu. Gapanov, Konstantin G. Gribanov, Stanislav V. Kondratov, Aleksey G. Maltsev, Peter I. Novikov, Sergey A. Tsvetkov, Vyacheslav I. Zakharov Laser-Induced Cold Nuclear Fusion in Ti-H2-D2-T2 Compositions. // Fusion Technology, 1991, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 234−238.
2. I. L. Beltjukov, N. B. Bondarenko, A. A. Dzhanelidze, M. J. Gapanov, K. G. Gribanov, S. V. Kondratov, A. G. Mal’tsev, P. I. Novikov, S. A. Tsvetkov, V. I. Zaharov. Laser system for Ti-H2-D2-T2 // Physics of metals and metallurgical science, No. 6, 1992, pp. 138−143.
3. K. A. Kaliev, A. N. Baraboshkin, A. L. Samgin, V.S. Andreev, S.A. Tsvetkov. Influence of Electrochemical Treatment on Sodium – Tungstic Bronzes // Abstracts of the International Conference, “Minsk, Belarus, May 25–27 1993, pp. 119−120.
4. S. A. Tsvetkov. Initiation of Cold Energy Fusion // Theses of the international conference, “Possibilities of Ecological Clean Energy Production and Energy Conservation”, Minsk, Belarus, May 25–27, 1993, p. 134.
5. S. A. Tsvetkov, N. B. Bondarenko, I. L. Beltjukov, A. N. Varaksin, A. A. Zivoderov. Calculation of the transitions in the system of Pd-D and cold nuclear fusion // Physics of metals and metallurgical science, Vol. 76, Iss. 4, 1993, pp. 94−97.
7. A. L. Samgin, A. N. Baraboshkin, I. V. Murygin, S. A. Tsvetkov, V. S. Andreev, S. V. Vakarin. ICCF-4, December 6–9, 1993, Lahaina, Hawaii, Vol. 1, No. 4.2.
8. A. L. Samgin, A. N. Baraboshkin, I. V. Murygin, S. A. Tsvetkov, V. S. Andreev, S. V. Vakarin. The Influence of Conducting Solid Electrolytes | Proceedings ICCF-4, December 6-9, 1993, Lahaina, Hawaii, EPRI, Palo Alto, California, Vol. 3; Nuclear Measurements Papers, pp. 5−1 ÷ 5−7.
9. Samgin AL, Finodeyev O., Tsvetkov SA, Andreev VS, Khokhlov VA, Filatov ES, Murygin IV, Gorelov VP, Vakarin SV; 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion, April 9–13, 1995, Monte-Carlo, Monaco, pp. 201-208.
10. S. V. Vakarin, A.L. Samgin, V.S. Andreev, and S.A. Tsvetkov. Influence of sodium chloride tungsten per crystals of the International Conference on Cold Fusion, April 9–13, 1995, Monte-Carlo, Monaco, pp. 227-232.
11. V.A. Khokhlov, E.S. Filatov, A.L. Samgin, V.S. Andreev, S.A. Tsvetkov, A.V. Cherepanov, O. Finodeev. Thermal Effects on the Pd-anode at the saturation of the electrolytic or hydrogen in molten salts // Cold nuclear fusion. Materials 2 Russian conferences on cold fusion and transmutations of the nucleus, Sochi, September, 19−23, 1994, Moscow, RFO, 1995, pp. 117–122.
12. Tsvetkov SA, “Cold Nuclear Fusion Initiatives”, Russian Federation Conference on Cold Fusion , 1996, pp. 281−294.
There have been publications on the interaction with laser radiation. There have been attempts to participate in international conferences. I want to draw attention to the fact that in 1995, when I had the opportunity to go to Monte Carlo to the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-5), we began a correspondence with Martin Fleischmann. In the letter below, he sends me his regards and informs me that they will take over the financing of my trip to ICCF-5. So we met him in absentia.
Fig. 15. Sergey Tsvetkov’s invitation to ICCF-5 with best wishes from Martin Fleischmann dated February 20, 1995.
I can say that from the very beginning we carried out all control experiments with hydrogen very carefully. In the first paper of 1989, we saturated titanium with hydrogen. Excess heat was obtained, but we did not register any nuclear products — neither neutrons, nor gamma radiation. And so we switched to deuterium. On deuterium, the heat additive compared to hydrogen was very large. If hydrogen is a matter of watts, then deuterium is dozens of watts, and today there is a kilowatt of excess heat on titanium.
Stages of development and organization with which I had to work since 1989:
YearOrganization 1989-1993 SFNIKIET 1990−1992 Small enterprise SORUS 1993−1995 IHTEC UD RAS, ENECOUSA 1996 JINR 1997 IPE UrB RAS 1994–2015 RFBR 1997−2017 Rospatent 2000–2001 HCF 2003−2006 IHTEC UrD RAS 2007 RUSNANO, Russian innovations 2007–2009 GFEN, China 2012-2015 AEE AG GmbH, Germany 2012- … Euro patent 2013 European Commission on Energy 2014 NationalInstruments, USA 2014 AREVA, France 2015 AIRBUS Group 2015−2017 UrFU 2017 JSC Russian Railways 2018 ARPA-E, USA 2018 Deneum, Estonia
There are small enterprises and institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Russian Academy of Sciences. The RFBR (Russian Foundation for Basic Research) is a separate entity. They said that it was necessary to somehow resolve the issue of financing cold fusion research. I can say that I have a unique “achievement” in relations with the RFBR on this issue. From 1994 to 2015, I submitted 30 applications to the Russian Foundation for Basic Research for grants for research on cold nuclear fusion. The only success was received in 2007 under a Russian-Chinese grant, for which we submitted a joint application with Professor Xing Zhong Li from China. He received a grant, but they did not give me one. Professor Li spent three years on this grant, which was associated with the diffusion of deuterium in palladium.
* * *
It turns out an interesting situation: China, Japan, India, South Korea, Italy, the USA, etc. Cold fusion research is needed for solving strategic civil and military tasks, and therefore they finance these works from their scientific and military state budgets, like when in the USSR, and in post-Soviet Russia, especially after the death of Academician A.N. Baraboshkin, for some reason they became absolutely unnecessary and turned into pseudoscience. What does this mean? The question for over 20 years remains unanswered.
* * *
I have not previously said that we performed the molecular dynamics calculation work on the behavior of deuterium in palladium, which also considered phase transitions between the alpha and beta phases in palladium deuteride. If titanium deuteride has three phases, between which there are two interphase transitions, then palladium has only one phase transition between alpha and beta phases. Therefore, the presence of three phases in titanium deuteride suggests that the process in titanium should go better. So it turned out.
Titanium has shown itself to be much better in energy than palladium: in reactors with deuterated titanium, tens and hundreds of watts of excess heat per gram are produced today, while in installations with palladium, milliwatts are still obtained, as in the days of Fleischmann and Pons.
In 2013, at a meeting of the European Commission on Energy, at which prospects for the industrial introduction of cold nuclear fusion installations were discussed, a report was made on the basis of a report by economists from Gazprombank on the use of palladium reactors:
“There is certainly excess heat when using a technological scheme with palladium, but it is too little to create promising power plants. Give us so much heat to steam the turbine, and then we will give you the money. ”
However, despite this conclusion, as Italian physicist Vittorio Violante from the Italian National Atomic Energy Agency (ENEA) told me later, in the same 2013 he received a € 0.5 million grant from the European Commission for his work with palladium, which he worked from 2013 to 2015.
* * *
I would also like to tell about those people who participated from the very beginning in cold fusion research in the USSR and the Russian Federation and with whom I was personally acquainted. The first of them is the head of the department of the Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. P. N. Lebedeva, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics Vladimir Aleksandrovich Tsarev.
Fig. 16. U-turn of the author’s copy of the article in V. Tsarev, Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk Physics Sciences, “Abnormal nuclear effects in a solid body (” cold fusion “). Questions still remain,” published in 1992, with a photo and autograph of the author.
He started very well, was interested in cold fusion and managed to publish, in my opinion, two or three very large solid reviews on cold fusion, about what directions there are, how they are developing. I advise everyone to get acquainted with these fundamental reviews, which describe in detail how it all began. We met at a meeting of the chemistry department of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and he gave me his copyright copy of one of these reviews and wrote:
“Someday we laugh at this ?! Or maybe not!”
Fig. 17. The authors of the first open Soviet study on cold nuclear fusion; Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences B. V. Deryagin and Candidate of Chemical Sciences A. G. Lipson.
I want to pay special attention to the work of the group of Academician Boris Vladimirovich Deryagin. Under his leadership was defended the only candidate dissertation on the study of cold nuclear fusion. Its author, Andrey G. Lipson, is called “Electrophysical Processes on Freshly Produced Surfaces of Solids”, defended in 1986, three years before the press conference of Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons.
Fig. 18. The cover of the author’s abstract of the Ph.D. thesis of A. G. Lipson “Electrophysical processes on a freshly formed surface of solids”, protected under the supervision of Academician B. V. Deryagin in 1986.
fuIn the experiments of Boris Deryagin and Andrei Lipson with the help of a copper hammer, they used to pick up “heavy” (deuterated) ice (D2O) and at the same time get high-energy electrons and neutrons. As far as I know, this is the only dissertation on cold fusion that has been defended in the USSR and post-Soviet Russia. I also tried twice to start writing dissertations on cold fusion in the Russian Academy of Sciences, but both times it ended at the stage of agreeing on the topic and approving it at the scientific council of the institute.
Unfortunately, Andrei Lipson died early. He and I, at the 7th International Conference on Cold Synthesis in Vancouver in 1998, prepared a report on the necessary conditions for the implementation of cold nuclear fusion. It was assumed that in the interaction with deuterium phase transitions should take place in the solid, and the surface of the solid should be very large. An optimal time for the implementation of a phase transition in deuterium-solid body systems is necessary, that is, in addition to saturation, it should go at a certain speed. If the saturation goes too slowly, then we do not register the products of the nuclear fusion reaction and we cannot say that nuclear fusion occurs at all. At a certain rate of saturation, nuclear fusion products are recorded. We noticed this moment in the first experiment – the background of neutrons in a solid is necessary. This idea was practiced by Andrei Lipson, he had many such works. He worked on KD (2) PdO (4) – in such a complex system. And in the end, he received excess neutrons when a small source of neutrons was placed next to this system. He supplied deuterium there, heated the sample, and neutrons of very large values were recorded.
The presence of oxygen in the “deuterium-solid” systems is also necessary. This condition is required. In our first papers, we noticed that if you add some air to deuterium, then the neutron yield increases dramatically 300 times.
In 1997, I patented a method for obtaining a nuclear fusion reaction with the addition of air to deuterium and in 2000 received a Russian patent. Here we are talking about a specific method of obtaining nuclear fusion using titanium.
* * *
Separately, I would like to tell you about the famous Italian Andrea Rossi, whom I managed to meet in 2012 in Zurich. In Fig. 19 Andrea Rossi gives me an autograph on his patent application for cold fusion. We then corresponded with him. He knows and remembers me.
Fig. 19. Andrea Rosii signs on a copy of his patent, presented to Sergey Tsvetkov.
It so happened that the famous Italian nuclear physicist Professor Sergio Focardi separated from another famous Italian physicist, Professor Francesco Piantelli, and began to independently engage in cold fusion research in the mid-1990s, and in the early 2000s Andrea Rossi joined Foccardi, and they made an operating device for obtaining excess heat in the interaction of hydrogen with nickel. It was demonstrated by them at the University of Bologna in Italy in January 2011.
At first they had a small reactor, then they created a megawatt heat generator in which 132 reactors of small reactors were combined. Hydrogen was supplied to nickel, and water was pumped outside, which removed heat and reached the boiling point and even higher – up to 102–103 ° C. This water then gave out 1 MW of thermal energy due to hydrogen-nickel reactions. Rossi then used gaseous hydrogen. His reactor worked at low parameters, that is, the temperature of the powder that was loaded into the reactor reached only 300–400 ° C.
Then the results of Focardi and Rossi were repeated by researchers elsewhere in the world. After a repetition of experiments such as in Switzerland by a group, by Giuseppe Levi, by Alexander Parkhomov in Russia, carefully read the reports and repeated their work. Remarkably, the person did not like most: they ran “over the tops”, concluded that this could not be, because this could never be. No, he understood the details, successfully reproduced the result and now he is constantly improving the operating parameters of his reactor.
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Cold Fusion – Dual Purpose Technology
In 2009, the report of the US Department of Defense Intelligence Agency “Technology Forecast: Increasing and Gaining Acceptance” was presented on the state of technology for obtaining cold nuclear fusion reactions in various countries around the world. This was not a secret report.
Naturally, the question arose of what is true in this report and what is disinformation. In particular, this report contained the following phrase regarding one of my work on the processing of radioactive waste:
“If nuclear particles can be obtained and elements can be converted using them, then low-energy nuclear reactions can be used to reduce the risk of nuclear waste or to neutralize weapons of mass destruction? 48”
Link 48 points to my work: Tsvetkov, S.A. “Waste Products Transmutation for Nuclear Fusion”, 10th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Cambridge, MA, 2003, [.pdf] from LENR-CANR.org website.
This paper was published in 2006 in the proceedings of the 10th International Conference (ICCF-10), which Peter Hagelstein organized at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I had to make several reports there, and it was one of them, which was called “The possibility of using cold fusion for the transmutation of nuclear waste”. It considered the processing of nuclear waste using fast reactors in the cross section for the interaction of neutrons with cesium and strontium. I considered only two of these radioactive isotopes from the entire spectrum of nuclear waste. On the basis of my experimental data on the number of neutrons registered at cold fusion reactors, I calculated the time for “burning out” radioactive waste and compared it with similar parameters that were obtained in fast neutron reactors. It turned out that for the afterburning of nuclear waste, cold fusion neutrons are more profitable and more convenient to use than fast neutron reactors.
In connection with the report of the intelligence agency of the US Department of Defense, I had a question: why do our military show strange indifference to research on cold nuclear fusion? Perhaps one of the reasons for this situation is precisely the fact that cold fusion neutrons can destroy atomic and hydrogen bombs by transmuting the nuclei of fissile material, making atomic bombs and missile warheads inoperable, in fact disarming the strategic forces of the nuclear powers. This feature makes missile defense unnecessary, deprives the military itself of the huge amount of money they now spend on outdated devices that play the role of scenery in the actions of intimidation of humanity and do not bring any tangible benefit, wasting time and energy, to eventually turn into in the sand.
It is quite obvious that on the Titanium-Deuterium system and its ilk, it is easy to make “hand-grenades” to disable bombs and warheads of missiles. Perhaps this is one of the reasons why our military does not really want to develop cold nuclear fusion, which, however, cannot be said about the American military – just look at the latest US government reports on military research and development in the field of cold fusion.
* * *
For many years I have been cooperating with Vladimir Fedorovich Balakirev, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Some time after the appearance of the report by the US Defense Secretary, Vladimir Fedorovich received a letter from the Committee on Energy of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, in which he was officially asked to express his opinion on this report, as well as on research on cold fusion in general. The American report stated that there are promising results on cold fusion, everything is fine. And while government funding is not worth it, they say, let the business invest in this area first, and we will see what happens.
Today we know that the situation around cold fusion after the Fleischmann and Pons conference developed from the mid-1990s according to the traditional US scenario: first, risky, high-cost research and breakthrough high-tech developments are implemented with state money, and then a play of their privatization under the guise of living embodiments American dreams such as Bill Gates, Ilon Musk and the like. According to this scheme, military IT-development, pharmaceutical, space, etc. were privatized. Today, the USA does not hide that for the past 25 years the Pentagon, the US Navy, DARPA, the space agency and the largest aviation American corporations have funded work in the field of cold fusion (see for example, a report that is frightening in its frankness (United States Government LENR Energy 2018).
* * *
Vladimir Balakirev wrote a response for the State Duma, in which he argued, and in this I fully support him, that cold nuclear fusion or low-energy nuclear reactions “are fundamental in their essence and are able to lead humanity into a new orbit of existence.”
Fig. 20. Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, State Prize Laureate Vladimir Balakirev.
The letter to the State Duma also listed promising areas for the use of cold fusion, such as:
– obtaining cheap, environmentally friendly thermal and electrical energy;
– single-wire and wireless transmission of electromagnetic energy;
– obtaining all chemical elements and scarce isotopes;
– the use of “strange” radiation;
– obtaining sources of highly targeted x-ray radiation (x-ray lasers).
V.F. Balakirev’s letter to the State Duma on cold fusion is actually only part of a huge correspondence between the Russian government, the Ministry of Defense, the State Duma and the Russian Academy of Sciences with scientists and each other in connection with the publication of the US Department of Defense report on cold fusion. We wrote letters, in response we received answers from the Russian Academy of Sciences, from the Ministry of Defense. The low level of scientific reasoning used by opponents of cold fusion in this correspondence, the obvious commitment of their assessments, combined with the lack of knowledge of the works mentioned in the American report, are worthy of analysis in a separate publication. Their position is unshakable: cold fusion is pseudoscience, the report of the US Defense Department is disinformation, the purpose of which is to direct our weakened intellectual forces along the wrong path.
Before our conference, I met with VF Balakirev. He cannot come from Yekaterinburg, but he said hello to all the participants and signs our welcoming address to colleagues from the USA.
* * *
On the attempt to create a laboratory in the Ural Federal University
Then I started in my alma mater, the Ural Federal University (UFU), organizing seminars on cold fusion. Here is the protocol of one of the seminars at the Department of Technical Physics, in which it is stated that the specialists and the management of the department support this area and talk about the need for public funding.
Fig. 21. Extract from the minutes of the scientific seminar of the Department of Technical Physics from May 25, 2011 on the topic “Single-nuclear nuclear reactions”.
In 2015, the seminars developed into the idea of organizing a laboratory on low-energy nuclear reactions at the Faculty of Physics and Technology of Ural Federal University.
Fig. 22. Title of the presentation of the grant application for the development program of the Ural Federal University.
The head of the laboratory was to be the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences B. V. Shulgin. To organize the laboratory, we applied for projects to receive grants for the development of the university several times. The idea of creating the laboratory was actively supported by the famous theoretical physicist from the Massachusetts University of Technology Peter Hagelstein, who today, March 23, 2019, should open a memorial colloquium for the 30th anniversary of cold fusion in Cambridge in a few hours. Hagelstein gave official consent to become a laboratory supervisor and work in UrFU for at least four months a year.
Then from Yashuhiro Iwamura, a professor at Tohoku University from Japan, who heads the Japanese cold fusion program (NEDO), I also received support for the idea of creating a laboratory in UrFU.
Fig. 23. Famous foreign scientists who supported the idea of creating a cold fusion laboratory in Ural Federal University: left MIT professor Peter Hagelstein and head of the Japanese state program NEDO cold fusion professor at Tohoku University Yashuhiro Iwamura.
In 2012, I managed to get to Nuremberg and organize a laboratory there.
Fig. 25. General view of the laboratory in Nuremberg, Germany, 2012.
I made a new reactor, which used small titanium samples.
Fig. 26. On the left – reactor diagram on the right, in the center – a general view of the reactor, on the right – a working sample.
Collected a new installation. For three years, 62 experiments have been done. The results obtained not only confirmed, but also significantly surpassed the results of previous studies on the titanium – deuterium scheme. An application for registration of a European patent was filed and filed in 2012.
Fig. 27. Application for European patent on the method and device of cold fusion operating on deuterated titanium, from 2012.
It is under review. Twice we were offered to close it and cancel it. But we persist in writing objections. They take time to consider these objections, conduct a new examination and again send us another refusal. But since last year a breakthrough began in the world in issuing various patents on cold fusion, the United States began to officially register patents on cold fusion reactors, I hope that we will “finish off” the European Patent Office and get a patent. Because the Russian patent, which I received in 1997, ended its action in 2017. And the European patent is its continuation.
What results were obtained on this installation? The graph of temperature changes in Fig. 28 shows an abrupt change in the temperature of the sample when the temperature from 590 ° C soars above 1120 ° C when deuterium is injected.
Fig. 28. Temperature change of the sample (6.9 g) with the supply of D2 + 2% air 13.11.2012.
In Fig. 29 shows the change in the pulse counting of the neutron detector. Here you can see the moment of the beginning of the nuclear process and it is clear that at this time the neutron yield is much larger than at the moment of the start of the overlap. The neutron count maximum corresponds to the moment of the second maximum in temperature in Fig. thirty.
Fig. 29. The change in the counting of neutron pulses at the start-up of D2 on sample No. 211.11.2012.
Fig. 30. Sample temperature at titanium deuterium loading 09/14/2015.
I believe that the temperature curve, which is indicated in Fig. 30 in green, is the result of two processes of heat. The first process, shown in blue, is due to the low energy of heat dissipation of the physico-chemical process of formation of titanium deuteride. The formation of titanium deteride gives us Q1 = 84.83 kJ of heat. At the moment of deuterium loading, the second process of releasing additional heat begins, which is Qizb in duration and in magnitude. = 568.25 kJ, and it significantly exceeds the process of hydride formation. It is the second process that is nuclear, that is, its heat is generated due to nuclear processes.
It is possible to determine the amount of deuterium absorbed by changing the pressure of deuterium, which turned out to be equal to 0.4263 g. And for the excess heat of 568 kJ, which is formed as a result of this process, only 5 · 10-6 g of deuterium is needed. This amount of deuterium in relation to the total amount of absorbed deuterium is 1.17 · 10-5 shares. That is, by the amount of released heat there is still a large supply of unused deuterium. This whole process takes only 40–50 minutes. The amount of energy that we spend on absorption in relation to all the heat released is obtained:
(Qizb. + Q1) / Q1 = 7.70
That is, it turns out that only one millionth of the absorbed deuterium is used to obtain the observed excess heat. There is an opportunity to increase this share.
There is one more interesting point to which attention should be paid in these studies. According to calculations, the excess heat that should have been released in these reactions should give the intensity of the neutron source:
Neutron = 3.86 × 10^5 neutron / sec.
But we register:
Ireg = 180 neutron / sec
This is 1869.5 times less than it should be according to calculations. How to explain it?
It is possible that most neutrons are simply absorbed inside the titanium sample, which gives us excess heat. Neutrons remain in the sample and structural materials of the reactor, and only some of them fly out, reach the neutron detector and register with the detector. I have at the moment such a working explanation of all this.
Further in these works secondary signs of cold nuclear fusion were discovered. I have already mentioned that 62 experiments were carried out in Nuremberg. During work we had a break for 4.5 months. At this time, a Geiger counter was left next to the installation, which measured the background inside the room where the installation was located. It turned out that the gamma background around the setup decreased, as can be seen in Fig. 31.
Fig. 31. Change in the pulse count of Gamma Scout from 13.11.2013 to 26.03.2014.
When we made saturation, we managed to increase the gamma background by 6−9%, and here it decreases. And it is clear that it falls off exponentially. And the exhibitor indicates that the process is related to the processes of nuclear decay. There is a scatter of points on the graph, but 6% from the top to the bottom value is nowhere to go – the background has decreased. I calculated the time of effective half-life, and it turned out:
What can disintegrate in the installation? This may be a complex of some elements – this is not one isotope.
Further, when the sample was heated, such an interesting feature was noticed as the change in the power of the external heater.
Fig. 32. Change heater power
The external heater has a certain capacity and heats the sample to 590 ° C. But when deuterium is injected, then a large energy release from the sample begins, and the power of the heater increases. How does it increase? Due to the fact that the temperature of the heater itself and its resistance increase. We used a power source that worked in the mode of maintaining a constant load current, and at the same time the temperature of this heater from an additional heat source increased. Accordingly, the resistance of the heater increases, which leads to a change in the power of the heater, according to my calculations, by 0.64 watts in 43 seconds. This is a fairly sensitive value. Therefore, I had an idea to use this effect to measure the heat from the sample during its saturation with deuterium and degassing. If you calibrate the external heater and install a constant current source, you can measure the amount of heat released from our sample without a Peltier calorimeter or a flow calorimeter.
In the same Nuremberg cycle of experiments, another very interesting mode of continuous release of excess heat was discovered, which I called self-oscillatory. In this mode, the titanium deuteride begins to absorb and release deuterium with a frequency of 0.33 Hz.
In Fig. 33 shows the preparatory steps for starting the system by turning the external heater on and off. The system swayed in this way, before it went into self-oscillatory mode. The sample was completely saturated with deuterium, and then I turned off and turned on the heater. And such a self-oscillating mode can last up to four hours.
Fig. 33. The appearance of the auto-oscillation mode with a frequency of 0.33 Hz on the pressure graph is circled in red.
According to calculations, an excess heat of 360 Watts per 7 g of titanium was obtained. If you count it on a 100-gram sample, you get an excess heat source of about 7 kW. The energy intensity of such a heat source will be 52.2 W / g of titanium, which is higher than the energy release of the WWR-1000 reactor, for which it is 45.5 W / g of uranium. That is, this is a significant heat release that can be converted and used as heat or as electricity.
* * *
In the summer of 2018 in Estonia, I managed to create a new installation (Fig. 34), at which at the maximum an excess heat emission of 500 watts from a titanium sample weighing 35.7 grams was obtained. I started scaling the effect. The result was 12.26 W / g of titanium – this is 4.7 times higher than in the first experiments. It turns out that the amount of heat generated by increasing the mass of the working sample also increases. At this facility, I achieved a process in which there is a constant heat release, while the heat release increases over time. Without adding anything, without touching anything, the system itself enters the self-oscillatory mode when it starts to generate heat.
A few words about the mechanisms of cold nuclear fusion. I found the expression of Albert Einstein, made by him in 1932:
“There is no reason to assume that nuclear energy will ever be obtained. Because for this it is necessary to be able to separate the atoms.”(highlighted by me – S.T.)
Actually, a system of solids (in our case, titanium) and deuterium allows us to separate hydrogen molecules into atoms. This separation mechanism works on the surface, more precisely, the surface works here. The process of titanium saturation with deuterium is carried out in such a way that at first deuterium is adsorbed on the surface, is divided into individual atoms, and individual atoms can penetrate into the titanium lattice. The size of the crystal lattice of titanium is such that the deuterium molecule cannot pass inside. Only if we divide it into individual atoms, then the deuterium in the atomic state quietly passes inside the lattice.
Based on my long research experience, it is possible to formulate the main components of the cold nuclear fusion realization mechanism in titanium:
1. The separation of hydrogen molecules into atoms.
2. Transformation of the energy of individual atoms using heavier atoms.
3. Maxwell distribution of atoms by energy.
4. The effect of the collider.
5. Van der Waals forces.
7. Primary products of high energy cold nuclear fusion.
8. Siverts law.
Explanations for item 7. The first products that are obtained as a result of the d + d reaction, tritium, proton, helium-3 and neutron, have very large energies, MeV! Large energies give a very large cross section for the reaction of the interaction of reaction products with each other. I believe that the resulting neutrons, helium-3, tritium and protons interact with each other with the development of the same tritium and helium-4. A cascade of nuclear reactions is launched, which leads to the production of tritium in much larger quantities than neutrons are obtained, and this is what we register. That is, neutrons, in addition to the energy return to the titanium lattice, are also involved in the formation of tritium. At the same time, helium-3 still adds protons to these reactions; therefore, such an imbalance of the amount of products in these nuclear reactions is observed. As a result of a cascade of nuclear fusion reactions, helium-4 is formed. Thus, helium-4 is not the primary product of the d + d reaction, but secondary, which is created as a result of the implementation of a cascade of nuclear reactions of high-energy products of the initial d + d reactions. That is my understanding of the process today.
* * *
Prospects for cold fusion
It is impossible to tell in detail about all aspects and directions of development that arise in the process of studying this amazing phenomenon of cold nuclear fusion. You can only identify the main directions, each of which requires a serious and lengthy discussion. At the moment I would highlight the following areas:
1. Getting heat and electricity.
2. Processing of nuclear waste from nuclear power plants and other industries.
3. Synthesis of tritium is much cheaper in cost than currently available in nuclear reactors.
4. Synthesis of precious metals and rare isotopes.
5. Getting oxygen from carbon dioxide.
6. Creating a gamma laser.
7. Space, aviation, auto and railway engines using technology.
No one wants to waste time today on understanding the mechanisms of cold fusion, although logic suggests that there was first a fusion of the elements, and now we use them using fission reactions or simply burning fossil fuels. Humanity is vital to the transition to nature-like, cyclical technologies that will meet the needs of people without disturbing the natural balance and gyres. The key technology in this transition today is the cold fusion technology of cold transmutation of nuclei. The transition to new nuclear technologies allows solving simultaneously the main energy, resource and environmental global problems.
Cold nuclear fusion is the gift of the Creator. Sin is not to take advantage of this. We must learn to use it.
By Sergey Tsvetkov
This is a re-post of a google-translated article by Sergey Tsvetkov published April 8, 2019 at REGNUM https://regnum.ru/news/2606951.html. Any use of materials is allowed only if there is a hyperlink to REGNUM news agency.
On May 8, 1989, the Electrochemical Society held their spring meeting in Los Angeles amid the frenzied controversy of the cold fusion announcement, and declared it F-Day!
This was on the heels of the 1989 American Physical Society meeting that began May 1 in Baltimore, where disgruntled physicists who failed to replicate the findings gathered together to congratulate each other for saving science from amateurs. After all, they knew nuclear theory, and chemists did not. Some of the biggest insults hurled by the mainstream physicists came from scientists with the MIT Plasma Fusion Laboratory and Caltech.
Electrochemist Nathan Lewis was from Caltech and claimed to have seen no effect. As it turned out, his experiment was woefully marred. [See Examples of Isoperibolic Calorimetry in the Cold Fusion Controversy by Melvin H. Miles J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13 (2014) 392–400] Still, Dr. Lewis showed solidarity with physicists by claiming “that their device “violates the first law of thermodynamics,” that is, the conservation of energy or, as is often said, “the universe offers no free lunch”.
That’s how Eugene Mallove tells it in his Pulitzer Prize-nominated book Fire from Ice Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor.
I’ve seen Youtube video of him frothing at the mouth while angrily asserting that Drs. Fleischmann and Pons had not “stirred their cells” properly.
Physicist Steve Koonin, a colleague of Nathan Lewis’s at Caltech, as well as future BP Oil exec and Department of Energy Secretary, said, “If fusion were taking place, we would see radiation in one form or another, and you would simply not be able to hide that radiation.”
Of course, this is what makes cold fusion/LENR so attractive. Not only do we get fusion-sized energy from tiny table-top cells that use a fuel of water, the heat energy is derived from a new type of reaction that generates no deadly radiation, as well as no CO2! Oh, Steve.
Eugene Mallove writes in his book Fire From Ice:
“…that Dr. Koonin also told New York Times reporter Malcolm Browne at the time of the meeting, “It’s all very well to theorize about how cold fusion in a palladium cathode might take place … one could also theorize about how pigs would behave if they had wings. But pigs don’t have wings.” “
Dr. Steve Koonin further disgraced himself for all historical time by saying “My conclusion is that the experiments are just wrong and that we are suffering from the incompetence and delusion of Doctors Pons and Fleischmann.”
While the Baltimore meeting allowed physicists to vent their failures with misery as company, the lowest point for the American Physical Society was reached when Dr. Steve Jones from Brigham-Young University led a panel at a news conference. Steve Jones, of course, the very reason why the March 23, 1989 news conference was held in the first place.
It was after five years of research that Drs. Fleischmann and Pons decided to get funding for their experiments. The US Department of Energy gave their proposal to Dr. Steve Jones for review. Dr. Jones had been previously working on a different kind of muon-catalyzed fusion, but had given it up for lack of results. (He claimed to get neutrons, though no one has ever reproduced his results.)
When Jones saw what the pair from University of Utah were up to, he was excited enough to jump back in, and he contacted Drs. Fleischmann and Pons – not a normal procedure in the application process – to invite them down for a visit to see his neutron detector. In the end of February 1989, while they visited, Steve Jones told Drs. Fleischmann and Pons that he would be announcing his own form of “cold fusion” in May, but, if they wanted to publish papers at the same time, he would be willing to do that.
Huh? Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons wanted nothing more than to get their funding and keep working, but upon arriving back at the University of Utah, administrators and lawyers were fearful of losing the “first place” of announcing this new kind of energy-producing experiment. The two electrochemists were prodded into making the news conference announcement anyway, beating Jones’ own announcement.
At the Baltimore meeting of physicists, Dr. Jones, perhaps still sore from being one-upped on his one-up, made poor scientific judgement by polling with a show of hands in order to determine whether cold fusion was dead, as documented by Steven Krivit on his website.
Eugene Mallove wrote in Fire From Ice:
Finally, “science by press conference” occurred again, degenerating even further into “science by poll.” At a news conference on the second day of the Baltimore cold fusion fest, Steve Jones asked for an impromptu “straw poll.” He asked nine of the session’s leading speakers whether they were at least 95 percent confident that the University of Utah claim to have generated heat by fusion could be ruled out. Eight answered “yes” and one, Rafelski, Jones’s colleague, wisely withheld judgment. Rafelski commented, “This should not be taken as the matter is settled.” However, Yale physicist Moshe Gai said of his group’s work, “Our results exclude without any doubt the Pons and Fleischmann results.” The panel voted more favorably on whether the claim that neutrons were being seen in a number of cold fusion experiments could be ruled out—three of nine kept an open mind.”
To have the top physicists in the country ridiculing the scientific process with such ugly outrage showed weak stature in scientific thinking, but these physicists were successful in having the tide turn against Drs. Fleischmann and Pons’ work. Their excess heat effects were now completely suspect.
Thus, when the May 8 meeting of the Electrochemical Society began, electrochemist Dr. Nathan Lewis of Caltech was confident in his superior knowledge. Nevertheless, there were 1600 attendees who were less assured.
From Fire and Ice, we get a list of positive results being reported from very competent and open-minded scientists. Eugene Mallove writes:
Everyone was awaiting May 8, when at the special cold fusion session of the Electrochemical Society spring meeting in Los Angeles, Fleischmann and Pons were supposed to present a “thorough, clean analysis” of the thermal aspects of their experiment. Pons told Jacobsen- Wells of the Deseret News, “We are going to supply all the information that we can. People evidently are misunderstanding a lot about calorimetry. A lot of people are making calorimetric measurements with instruments that may not be suitable for these experiments.”
The meeting began with controversy over the relative absence of critical scientists; had it been arranged to be a celebration of only positive results? Lewis of Caltech was present at least as a token skeptic. As he had done in Baltimore, he proclaimed his numerous permutations and combinations of materials and conditions, all of which had failed to show excess power or nuclear products. “I’d be happy to say this is fusion as soon as somebody shows that it is,” a self-assured Lewis told the 1,600 assembled. Fleischmann and Pons were having no trouble. Now they were claiming to get bursts of heat lasting a few days up to 50 times the power input to their cell—the claim was even more extreme than before! Was this a tip-off that they were really onto something, or that they had completely gone off the deep end? To rebut Lewis, they showed a brief film clip of a bubbling cell in which they had injected red dye. Within 20 seconds the dye had spread uniformly through the cell, intuitively giving the lie to Lewis’s accusation about improper stirring.
Concerning their neutron results, Fleischmann and Pons backed off a bit, acknowledging reluctantly that their measurements were deficient and were the “least satisfactory” part of their research. They said that they would rerun their experiment with a new detector. More disturbing was their withholding of the long-awaited and promised 4He measurements. There was an emerging feeling (not necessarily a correct one) that if there were no copious neutrons, there had to be helium-4 to make the claim for a nuclear process. The Fleischmann-Pons rods were being analyzed for helium by Johnson-Matthey Corporation, the 170-year-old British precious metals supplier, under an agreement of exclusivity with the company. This was the presumed reason for the turning down of many other offers to do the rod “autopsy.” Fleischmann had admitted at the meeting that if no helium were to turn up, “it would eliminate a very strong part of our understanding of the experiment.”
Bockris from Texas A&M, Huggins from Stanford, and Uziel Landau from Case Western all backed up the Utah duo with positive heat measurements. At a press conference Huggins said, “… It’s fair to say that something very unusual and large is happening. There is conclusive evidence there is a lot of heat generated here—much larger than the proposed chemical reactions that people suggest might be happening.” A thinly veiled criticism of physicists by a Society official, Dr. Bruce Deal, drew applause: “Unlike other societies, we do not attempt to solve complex technical problems by a show of hands.” But not every electrochemist left the meeting convinced. The experiments were subtle, apparently difficult to reproduce consistently, and of course totally unexplained. Steve Jones again reiterated his faith in his neutrons and disbelief on the question of heat—at least in cold fusion cells. Cold fusion might still be partly responsible, he thought, for the hellish conditions inside the planet.
Soon cold fusion would face increasingly acid opposition. Martin Deutsch, professor of physics emeritus at MIT had told Science News, “In one word, it’s garbage.” (Science News, Vol. 135, May 6, 1989.) Some media had essentially written it off. Scientists who had genuinely tried to make cold fusion happen, but who for reasons still not clear could not coax their cells into working, would be joining the ranks of the opposition. They were frustrated and mad. They had wasted precious research time chasing rainbows. Enough was enough! Time to move on.
But those who believed in the tantalizing results of some experiments would not be stilled. Others who were bold enough to theorize about fantastic mechanisms to explain cold fusion did not give up either. They persevered, egged on by the serious critics.
If people were having trouble finding neutrons, perhaps the mysterious “cold fusion” was a kind of nuclear reaction that was largely neutronless—as the MIT analysis seemed to suggest. As skeptic Petrasso himself would say in January 1990 at a lecture at the PFC, “We may turn out to be the big allies of Fleischmann and Pons if they can now prove that they have fusion, because what we’ve demonstrated now is that they basically didn’t have any neutrons at all coming from their heat-producing cell….So now they can claim that they are having neutronless heat generation.” If this turns out to be true, a mind-boggling technological revolution may be in store for us.
So it was that cold fusion became the “pariah science” despite so many positive results, and the Electrochemical Society proclaimed May 8 to be F-day. While I imagine that means Fusion Day, one could fill in F-day with other words, for though the ugly attitudes have stopped spraying spittle as they emote, the lasting effects of these lost years have yet to be measured.
What would have been different if these physicists had only kept to their scientific oath, to follow a method “consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
Lucky for us, Caltech, MIT, the Department of Energy, the USPTO – it’s a long list – were not able to stop the research. Today, we are nearing commercially-available technology using condensed matter nuclear science, the field which Drs. Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons discovered. It’s 30-years late, but after rolling that long, we can expect an avalanche of announcements that will flip the narrative of failure that mainstream physicists have perpetrated. The failure is their own.
These men who de-railed our future should apologize to Dr. Martin Fleischmann (posthumously) and Dr. Stanley Pons (still underground), and us. The best way would be to urge their colleagues at the current Department of Energy to recognize CMNS science and start funding science research so we can get a technology fast. Or, we can just let them fade away, on the wrong side of history forever.
Thirty years ago on April 26, 1989, Drs. Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons were in the midst of a barrage of inquiries about their discovery. Visitors to their basement lab on the UU campus were treated to a tour, and came away satisfied. Others elsewhere were setting up cells, and failing to reproduce the excess heat effect the pair had claimed was nuclear in origin.
Excitement and confusion carried the news to the U.S Congress where a hearing would be held. A group representing the University of Utah, including Drs. Fleischmann and Pons, the University President Dr. Chase Peterson, and the Vice-President for Research Dr. James J. Brophy would update the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee, and ask for research funding to explore this new effect.
This was documented in the Pulitzer-prize nominated book Fire From Ice Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor by Eugene F. Mallove which chronicles the early days of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science.
At 9:45 A.A., Room 2318 in the Rayburn House Office Building was packed. Chairman Roe in his prefacing remarks held up the promise of a golden age: ” Today, we may be poised on the threshold of a new era. It is possible that we may be witnessing the cold fusion revolution, so to speak. If so, Man will be unshackled from his dependence on finite energy resources.” The ranking Republican member of the Committee Robert Walker of Pennsylvania, sang the tune of small science, which Pons and Fleischmann had come to personify: “If this discover is fully proven, it will show once again the importance of supporting a vigorous small science enterprise in this period of large engineering and science projects… If the initial results are verified, it is essential that we do everything we can do to develop the promise of cold fusion.” He chilled the hot fusion scientist who were present: “I was pleased that the committee’s Energy Research and Development Subcommittee accepted my amendment during its April 6 markup authorizing that $5 million be redirected from the Magnetic Fusion Program in to the basic Energy Science activity, specifically for room temperature fusion.” He said he would move in the direction of upping that to $25 million. These high states were really making the hot fusion people sweat, but despite their skepticism, they could not be absolutely sure that old fusion was a mistake or an artifact – a misinterpretation of something much more prosaic.
Congressman Owens introduced Fleischmann and Pons with soaring words: “The event, the possible achievement of solid state fusion, or the so-called cold fusion, is nothing less than a miracle with all the elements of a miracle – surprise, exaltation, disbelief, and skepticism.” Pons led the cold fusion charge and recounted the tale of their amazing discovery. He had brought a mock-up of their experiment to show the congressmen and held forth with technical slides to buttress his case, explaining the science and technology of the special electrochemistry in some detail. He explained the “competition” of two paths for the deuterium – either release as D2 gas bubbles at the palladium rod surface or deep penetration into the palladium. Pons drew a mental picture to prompt association with hot fusion, “… we end up having a low-temperature plasma inside the metal instead of atoms or molecules of deuterium” Palladium can dissolve within its structure a staggering amount of deuterium (or hydrogen) without forming gas bubbles within the lattice. With the palladium lattice, nature supposedly performs a wonder that our most sophisticated technology is incapable of doing otherwise. Pons said, “If you were to try to obtain that same voltage by the compression the hydrogen gas to get that same chemical potential of 0.8 Volts you would have to exert a hydrostatic pressure of a billion, billion, billion atmospheres…” Pons estimated the effective confinement time for the deuterium atoms to be 600 years! Ergo, he and Fleischmann had tamed fusion.
Mallove continued describing Stanley Pons’ experimental conclusions:
….The bottom line: “… the excess heat liberated is of such a magnitude that it cannot be explained by any chemical reaction.” But even more wondrous: “The heat generation continues indefinitely until the cell is turned off….” This time he fully owned up to the mystery of cold fusion: The amount of energy coming out was about a billion times more than could be explained with conventional d-d fusion giving those same measured levels of neutrons and tritium. “So apparently there is another nuclear reaction or another branch of the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction that heretofore has not been considered, and it is that that we propose is, indeed, the mechanism of the excess heat generation.”
Responding to question about others who reported that they could not reproduce the effect, Eugene Mallove recounts Dr. Fleischmann’s response.
To questions about reproducibility, Fleischmann claimed that many people were setting up cells with dimensions and parameters that—not surprising to him—did not yield excess heat. Just to be sure no one could question their veracity, Pons announced that researchers from Los Alamos would soon be coming to the University of Utah to measure a working cell and would take it back with them for testing (after it was charged up with deuterium). He also said that other groups in the past week had come to the university and had been satisfied with what they saw.
They were supremely confident of their results. Pons told the committee: “For five and a half years I think we were our most severe critics, and we are still as sure as sure can be. We produce our data and we believe what we are seeing.” Fleischmann was only a shade more circumspect: “I do not know how to interpret our results in any other way than that we have observed a fusion phenomenon. So I’m still totally convinced about our work. But naturally, we shall have to look at everybody else’s work as well, including all unsuccessful experiments, and only time will show whether we are correct or not.” Fleischmann based this claim, he said, on adding up the total energy coming out of a typical cell over a period of 100 hours or more. The bottom line: The excess energy per cubic centimeter of material in the palladium electrode (5 megajoules per cubic centimeter; alternatively, 1.4 kilowatt-hours per cc) was over a 100 times “any conceivable chemical reaction in the system.” Fleischmann did not doubt that if the experiment were run 10 times longer, the total excess would be 1,000 times higher than a chemical process.”
Also testifying in support of the claims was Dr. Robert Huggins, a Professor in the Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University. Mallove writes that at the hearing, Dr. Huggins claimed 14% excess heat with a deuterium cell, while a light-hydrogen cell used as a control produces zero excess heat.
He put the magic conclusion directly up front, “The results that we have obtained lend credence to the Fleischmann and Pons contention that a significant amount of thermal energy is evolved when deuterium is inserted into palladium, and that this phenomenon is quite different from the behavior of the otherwise analogous hydrogen-palladium system.” Not being experienced in nuclear measurements, however, he had no neutron or other radiation data to give further support to this remarkable result.
Huggins’ group was claiming about 14 percent excess heat in one of the experiments. The excess power generated in the deuterium-containing cell increased continuously, while the power curve of the light water cell remained essentially flat. Huggins concluded that there must be “an appreciable internal heat generation effect in the case of the deuterium-palladium system, regardless of the presence of any chemical or thermal effects in both systems.” The group had observed the phenomenon, he said, in more than one sample, on several occasions, and with different types of calorimeters. Moreover, Huggins asserted, “The magnitudes of the observed effects are comparable to those reported earlier by Fleischmann and Pons and lend strong support to the validity of their results.” Huggins told the panel that the now very puzzling reproducibility problem in his view had to do with the preparation of electrode materials, a theme he would consistently echo in weeks to come. He cautiously avoided a firm conclusion that the phenomenon was a nuclear effect, though he did cite the Walling-Simons theory (the helium-4 production branch of d-d fusion) as a possible explanation.
Another supporter came in the form of hot fusion scientist and editor of the journal Fusion Technology, Dr. George H. Miley, whose written statement to the Committee included, “I am personally convinced that solid-state catalyzed cold fusion occurs and this is an unexpected
and very important new regime of physics.” In fact, Professor Miley was a “proponent of fusion in any form”
Mallove writes in Fire from Ice:
Miley’s overall message advocated diversity in fusion research—the antithesis of the present direction of the financially strapped hot fusion program. “It’s very important to the research activities of this nation that we have seed money to allow smaller groups to do the exploratory research,” he said. “I’m a lifelong proponent of fusion. It has so many possibilities, that one of the difficulties of the moment is there is no roo for funding for innovative research. Something has to be done.” He was absolutely right.
Of course detractors were at the hearing as well. Dr. Ronald Ballinger, Professor of Nuclear Science and Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology “blasted Drs. Fleischmann and Pons’ “communication”.
Eugene Mallove tells the story of how Dr. Ballinger told the Committee
…that the round-the-clock MIT experimenters had so far been unable to verify any cold fusion claims. “To my knowledge,” he said, “with the possible exception of the people at Stanford [University], and the results from Europe and the USSR, of which I have no personal knowledge, we have not had a single confirmation, scientific confirmation of the reported neutron emissions from the experiment, nor the excess heat. I want to be careful when I say scientifically verified.” He maintained that the MIT radiation detection measurements were at least 10 times more sensitive than the University of Utah measurements yet had found no neutrons. He also claimed that MIT’s calorimetry was also “probably about ten times more sensitive.”* Blasting Fleischmann and Pons’s style of scientific communication, he said, “… the scientific community has been left to attempt to reproduce and verify a major scientific breakthrough while getting its experimental details from The Wall Street Journal and other news publications.” He urged the committee to support verification experiments but not to commit major funds before that process had worked its way through.
As it turned out, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s attempts to reproduce the effect were woefully inadequate.
The MIT Plasma Fusion Center held a Wake for Cold Fusion before their experiments were even finished. Shockingly, they also edited their data, moving temperature readings downward to eliminate any possible signature of excess heat.
A later analysis of both MIT and Caltech’s epic fails was performed by Drs. Melvin Miles and Peter Hagelstein who determined that in both cases, crippling designs and/or procedure damned their results. For details read New analysis of MIT Calorimetric Errors [[.pdf]