PULSE presents science and technology in the field of breakthrough energy. The gorgeous PULSE #3 is a sensory banquet of full-page, beautifully-printed art, and has articles on topics such as The Agonizingly Long Wait for Breakthrough of Breakthrough Energy by Fred Teunisson, who laments the lack of progress in commercial development of new energy technology, and ultimately takes a hard look in the mirror for why.
This issue also features an article on The Explanation of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction by Dr. Edmund Storms, a book that compares the observational data from cold fusion experiments with the many theories of LENR. Cold Fusion Now’s Ruby Carat was one of the editors of the book and designed the front cover hydroton.
Edward Tsyganov presented Cold Nuclear Fusion at the Channeling 2014 Conference held October 5-10, Capri, Italy.
During the Oct. 8 roundtable session, Dr. Tsyganov has reported that “some of the participants suggested that we avoid rushing to promote cold fusion and, therefore, prevent any interference with the implementations of international tokamak ITER.”
Tsyganov explained, “… it is difficult to ignore the cold fusion process because it is much less expensive and much more practical than traditional thermonuclear fusion.”
The scientific community has always had trouble adapting to truly new knowledge. The current paradigm of nuclear physics does not contain effects such as cold fusion, although this phenomenon does not contradict any of the fundamental laws of nature. Attempts to generate controlled nuclear fusion, which have been conducted for nearly half a century, have already come a long way. The most advanced attempt, ITER, a tokamak of cyclopean size and corresponding value is currently under construction. Realists assess that this facility will take 35-50 years to complete and commence operations. It is only considered as a research project and is expected, after its launch, to start even more gargantuan industrial tokamak. The prospect of huge financial and material spends for another half century looms.
Oil and gas can no longer serve as global fuel, due to its exhaustion, while the companies will try to fight back. This way also may well lead to climate change, a population reduction, and social upheavals.
Cold fusion is a real alternative to this tragic scenario. We believe that in the coming years, the scientific success of cold nuclear fusion will be realized and a radical change in the applied nuclear research will come.
Unfortunately, cold fusion still seems to be quite distant from wide recognition, even though the issue is now practically solved in experimental and theoretical terms. At the moment we are facing a problem that is not scientific but sociological. It is difficult to predict how fast events will develop in this direction. A paradigm shift in science has never been an easy task for society. We should propose the optimal behavior for scientists in these circumstances.
Find Powerpoint presentation slides and photos of the event here:
Open Power Association Newsletter #14 has been released. The newsletter is archived in Italian here. The following are a few google-translated and slightly modified excerpts that refer to cold fusion-related activities.
Our Scientific Director: Prof. Ugo Abundo at the International Conference of Rhodes
From 22 to 28 September was held in Rhodes (Greece) International Conference 2014 on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics. Ugo Abundo was invited to participate in the proceedings as a representative of Open Power, to discuss the results of the activities that are part of the Association.
The work has been focused on the re-establishment of new mathematical foundations of physics, able to address the many issues currently unresolved, through change of paradigms in force. The new isomatematica (and evolutions “geno” and “hyper”) Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli presented as the appropriate tools to deal with maps deformed intrinsic irreversibility fields to ipervalori.
By means of these tools, it has been shown by speakers from all over the world, in view of industrial development, advanced applications in the field of energy, and in particular, in regards to the structure of the neutron and the atomic behavior for the purpose of nuclear synthesis. In the previous treatment of such areas, the math, as well as Quantum Mechanics appears inadequate. Hadronic mechanics, specifically developed by Prof. Santilli as an evolution of the above when both distances between particles comparable to the size of the nuclei, is revealed adequate to treat nuclear-type energy situations, where the particles can not be assimilated to material points, as in Quantum Mechanics.
Ugo Abundo presented in two separate reports, the LENR experiments conducted in the Open Power laboratory, and a neural network model generalized setting from the field of Artificial Intelligence, which makes homogeneous Quantum Mechanics and the Hadronic, justifying the applicability conditions of each of them, showing from the mathematical point of view, what happens in terms of internal information to physical systems when the first turns in the second.
Abundo’s report, entitled “An intrinsically Irreversible, Neural-network-like Approach to the Schrödinger Equation and some Results of Application to Drive Nuclear Synthesis Research Work” [.pdf] has been accepted for publication as part of the American Institute of Physics in the Proceedings of the Conference. Hence, the conditions for collaboration with other mathematicians (mainly French, Indian, Greek) to jointly pursue such studies about the applications of AI in the field isomatematica and subsequent transferability to modeling of elementary particles in interaction.
New web site nuovascienza.org dedicated to the work of Prof. Ruggero Maria Santilli
It is certainly easy to understand and explain briefly the complex thought articulated by Prof. Ruggero Maria Santilli, developed in the ‘arc of 40 years of work, both theoretical and experimental. Remarkable also is the amount of writings, conference papers, and scientific publications, he authored. This website has as main purpose to spread all those materials, video lectures, writings, etc.. In which Santilli describes in clear words and straightforward His theories and their mathematical models; His experimental paths (and industrial), and insights for the future of scientific research and experimentation in the field of new energy …
Here lists the work and thought of Santilli, who (unlike many academics pigtails Italian or not), does not miss at all courage in an attempt to place in certain areas more correct and the same theories of Eintein (Holy Grail?), and even quantum mechanics, from certain points of view. He did not even hesitate to take a picture of the “Science Today”; a photograph very brave, uncomfortable, and merciless; in substance, very critical …
In fact, he argues more explicitly that “the greatest responsibility for the crisis of physics should be seen in the press as a result of the total subservience to the centers of scientific power, while the political responsibility is only indirectly, as the political world uses print as a medium of information and action.”
This website has been designed so as a sort of very concise and articulate “compendium”, the enormous scientific thought and work Santilliano not yet sufficiently known and disclosed, and therefore unappreciated by the general public (at least in Italy, in my opinion), but certainly well-known and much appreciated from a small circle of experts and professionals, even in Italy, for his innovative value; a “compendium” I said for the use of those Italian researchers thirsty and with the critical spirit of true knowledge, but alas mè, with little time available to study the large amount of material and information that the Internet provides us every day.
Third-party report on ‘E-CAT released — Andrea Rossi
Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device of and isotopic changes in the fuel [.pdf]
Bologna University, Bologna, Italy
Bo Höistad, Roland Pettersson and Lars Tegnér
Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
New results are presented from an extended experimental investigation of anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube operating at high temperatures. The reactor, named E-Cat, is charged with a small amount of hydrogen-loaded nickel powder plus some additives, mainly Lithium. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils around the reactor tube. Measurements of the radiated power from the reactor were performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected during 32 days of running in March 2014. The reactor operating point was set to about 1260 ºC in the first half of the run, and at about 1400 °C in the second half. The measured energy balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3.2 and 3.6 for the 1260 ºC and 1400 ºC runs, respectively. The total net energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1.5 MWh. This amount of energy is far more than can be obtained from any known chemical sources in the small reactor volume.
A sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic composition before the run and after the run, using several standard methods: XPS, EDS, SIMS, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The isotope composition in Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition before the run, while after the run it was found to have changed substantially. Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present in the run process, which however is hard to reconcile with the fact that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run.
Read the full report: http://www.hydrobetatron.org/files/ROSSI.pdf
Newsletter compiled by L.S. and the Open Power Association
Dr. Edmund Storms, one of the foremost experts in cold fusion/LENR research has recently published a new book titled The Explanation of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: An Examination of the Relationship Between Observation and Explanation. Dr. Storms worked at Los Alamos labs for 34 years studying energy related chemistry, specifically advanced nuclear projects. This book is currently the most up-to-date compilation of LENR research and contains over 900 references, but is written in such a way that it is organized and conducive to a well rounded understanding.
According to the preface by Dr. Mike McKubre of Stanford Research Institute, “There is no better synthesis of knowledge and understanding presently available to us and I know of no other person capable of making an evaluation at this level.” While this could be considered a reference material for experimental results, it differs from Dr. Storms’ previous books in that it introduces his theory of the mechanism behind the LENR effect, an oscillating linear cluster of two or more hydrogen or deuterium atoms called the Hydroton.
The first half of the book contains a wealth of knowledge regarding the experimental results obtained in the field. This includes the physics of the various experimental systems as well as an overview of instrumentation and general trends in the collective data. There are a large amount of pictures and graphs which really help to mentally process some of the complex relationships in the data. This section of the book is critical for anyone interested in LENR because it organizes and condenses the experimental procedures and results in a way which makes the huge amount of seemingly contradictory research much simpler to understand.
Dr. Storms takes a first-principles approach and imposes certain limits on the parameters of LENR theory based on what has been observed and basic chemical and physical principles. The experimental techniques used in the field are explained as well as the limitations and some reasons all of the facets of the LENR effect have eluded researchers. An overview of the physics of radiation from various nuclear reactions which may be present is very helpful in explaining the odd experimental results of the field. It is proposed that only a few types of radiation are produced directly from the LENR reaction but secondary radiation is produced from either the interaction of radiation with other matter in the system, traditional nuclear effects such as fractofusion (example: Ti-D experiments) or combination fusion-fission reactions (very unique part of the Hydroton theory). Dr. Storms goes into detail about how he believes various triggering methods initiate or improve the production of the LENR effect.
Dr. Storms’ theory revolves around a linear oscillating cluster of two or more hydrogen or deuterium atoms called a Hydroton. Under certain conditions this structure forms in the nano-cracks of metallic substrates. This differs significantly from the early theories of LENR in that it does not take place in the metallic lattice. Many theories are based on the fact that hydrogen or deuterium loaded into a metallic lattice inherently become pushed very close together, a shortcut towards fusion. These same theories require that the nuclear energy be communicated directly from the nucleus to the electrons (lattice) which is not unheard of but is not a traditional nuclear pathway and requires a complex explanation. Dr. Storms examines the lattice vs. nano-crack argument from a chemical, thermodynamic and transport standpoint, pulling from what we know of nuclear product production in LENR and the physics and chemistry of hydride/deuteride systems.
Dr. Storms insists that it is simply not possible to both produce fusion and dissipate the energy inside of a lattice. His model does not rely on energy dissipation via the lattice but through a steady release of bursts of low energy photons as the Hydroton oscillates and fusion occurs. Another significant difference compared to most theories is that it explains the different results obtained using deuterium vs. using hydrogen via two different mechanisms. This is important because many early theories only focused on deuterium fusion ignoring hydrogen all together, but modern experiments show that hydrogen does indeed participate in the LENR effect.
Lastly, Dr. Storms explains the various methods of producing transmutation products, either via a fusion-fission reaction of a hydrogen containing Hydroton or by the substrate atoms becoming part of the Hydroton in deuterium containing Hydrotons. The mechanism producing tritium and helium is explained in detail as well, but will not be explained here. Dr. Storms’ theory explains all known aspects of LENR in a very new way, not requiring the limitations of the mechanism taking place directly in the substrate lattice.
This theory is testable in various manners. Dr. Storms makes some suggestions in the book including the confirmation of predicted transmutation products as well as the detection of soft radiation such as low energy photons, betas, alphas and energetic ions. Dr. Storms points out that the reason radiation is not often detected is that the expected types and energies of radiation can simply not be detected outside of the experiment, requiring in-situ soft radiation detectors. So far it seems that experimental results line up with Dr. Storms’ theory but since his theory was built around this data it is important that future experiments be compared to what is expected using his model. Single or multiple deuterium addition to the substrate in deuterium containing Hydrotons, or fusion-fission products in hydrogen containing Hydrotons, would be expected and a good place to examine the theory experimentally.
Overall this is an excellent theory which can make some predictions; it will not allow us a complete mastery of LENR but is a large step in the right direction. Most of Dr. Storms’ theory is based on traditional physics and chemistry but there are certain aspects which are not fully understood, specifically how a Hydroton releases controlled bursts of photons at very low energies before the completion of the fusion process. This is the sticking point of LENR theory—it is not so hard to explain how two atoms fuse, but how they release their huge amount of energy without creating standard hot fusion products and detectable radiation as well as destroying the lattice local where the event took place.
By investigating experimental results and applying his physics and chemistry understanding, Dr. Storms is able to produce some basic equations which explain the power produced by LENR systems and show optimal operating conditions. Like everything else Dr. Storms produces, these equations are created using first principles and basic science; a Ph.D. is not required to wrap your head around this book as well as his theory in general.
Dr. Storms’ book contains a chapter of modern theories of LENR including limitations and possible shortcomings. This inventory of theories is great because it provides an excellent balanced overview of the field from a theoretical standpoint. This combined with the overview of the field from an experimental standpoint makes this the best reference book in the field of LENR. This book is highly recommended for anyone from the student interested in learning about LENR for the first time to highly trained scientists working in the field of LENR. There will be no disappointment in the level of detail and with over 900 references it provides an incredibly organized wealth of information regarding LENR experiments and theory.
The final chapter “Future of LENR” provides a road-map forward, listing the requirements for mastering the LENR effect as well as what needs to be done experimentally to get there. One thing the book does not mention is that Dr. Storms is ready and willing to put his LENR skill-set and understanding to the ultimate test—along with other researchers Dr. Storms has proposed an experimental research program to further the understanding of LENR. Dr. Storms is currently in the process of raising money for this research program and at millions of dollars per year, this could be the Manhattan project of LENR. The only thing standing between mankind and a guaranteed increased understanding of LENR is research funding and public awareness. I urge anyone interested in LENR to inform others about this book and the field in general and those which are financially independent to contact Dr. Storms about his research proposal. — Nikita Alexandrov, Permanetix Corporation
A transcript of the video news report was provided by Scientific Information Department JINR 2014 and is reproduced below:
The seminar, which dealt with cold nuclear fusion, took place at the Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. In his report, Professor Edward Tsyganov gave a possible explanation of the effects observed in numerous experiments. The scientist was asked many questions. Currently, physicists believe that there is no conclusive evidence for the existence of cold fusion. However, cold fusion studies continue to be carried out in various countries in order to discover and secure an inexhaustible supply of nuclear energy.
It all started with a report by chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons on electrochemically induced nuclear fusion—the conversion of deuterium to tritium or helium through electrolysis using a palladium electrode. This report, which appeared in March 1989, caused quite a stir. The scientists observed neutron emission and the recovery of large amounts of heat, which are signs of nuclear processes. However, the scientific community believes that their claims are incomplete and inaccurate. So-called cold fusion established itself as a pseudoscience; however, after a public demonstration of the experiment using electrochemical cells in 2008 by Yoshiaki Arata of Osaka University, discussions on cold fusion began to appear again.
Known nuclear fusion reactions—thermonuclear reactions—take place in plasma at temperatures of millions of degrees Kelvin. So-called cold nuclear fusion assumes the possibility of nuclear fusion reactions in chemical (atomic and molecular) systems without significantly heating the working substance. However, most chemists and physicists are trying to find an alternative (non-nuclear) explanation for the phenomenon.
Professor Edward Tsyganov remarked that, when saturating conductive crystals with deuterium atoms, the presence of free electrons in the crystal potential niches leads to a ban for the unexcited deuterium atoms to occupy these niches. At the same time, even the first excitation level of deuterium atom removes this ban. When all of the potential niches have already been filled by deuterium atoms at least once, further saturation of a crystal with deuterium atoms gives rise to twin clusters of atoms in one such niche.
In most of these clusters, deuterium nuclei are pulled together to distances of 1/10–1/20 of the nominal size of these atoms. The zero level of quantum mechanics vibrations in the adjacent deuterium nuclei quickly leads to the penetration of the two deuterium nuclei through the reduced Coulomb barrier. The spatial orientation of the excited deuterium atoms in the crystal lattice is strictly determined with respect to one of the crystal lattice’s spatial directions.
The report also discussed the further dissipation of energy during the transition from the excited state of 4He* to the ground state–formed nuclei of 4He (~24 MeV).
This was the second seminar on the topic of cold fusion at JINR. About a year and a half ago, Professor Edward Tsyganov gave a similar talk at JINR. Both then and now, his report “DD fusion in conducting crystals” has caused heated debate.