Analysis of New Rossi PCT filing based on US Patent 9,115,913 issued 25Aug15

On August 25, 2015 a US patent issued to Leonardo Corporation on an invention by Andrea Rossi. Discussion of this patent is available in previous postings on ColdFusionNow.org here:

Analysis of Rossi US Patent 9,115,913 Issued 25Aug15 Part 1
Analysis of Rossi US Patent 9,115,913 Issued 25aug15 Part 2

This US patent, US 9,115,913, was filed directly before the US Patent Office by Andrea Rossi on March 14, 2012 and thereafter assigned to Leonardo Corporation, both of Miami Beach, Florida. This filing was unusual in that it was not laid-open for public examination – “published” – as of 18 months from its earliest filing date, as is typical for virtually all countries around the world.

This publication procedure applies even for the United States in respect of the bulk of American applications. Instead, the applicant in this case took advantage of a special provision in US law that allows a request for non-publication to be made if supported by a certification that the invention disclosed in the application has not been and will not be the subject of an application filed in or destined for another country that provides for publication at eighteen months after filing.

The attorney for Rossi and Leonardo Corporation, knowing that this US application was going to issued patent in August, 2015, filed a statement before this occurred withdrawing the above certification and thereby freeing-up the possibility of filing patents for the same invention abroad. As a consequence, a PCT application was filed on July 28, 2015. That PCT application was published as part of the PCT filing procedure on February 4, 2016. A summary of key data from this application is as follows:

________________________________________

Pub. No.: WO/2016/018851
Application No.: PCT/US2015/042353
Publication Date: 04.02.2016
Filing Date: 28.07.2015

IPC: F24J 1/00 (2006.01)
F MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
24 HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
J PRODUCTION OR USE OF HEAT NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
1 Apparatus or devices using heat produced by exothermal chemical reactions other than by combustion

Applicants: ROSSI, Andrea [US/US]; (US)
Inventors: ROSSI, Andrea; (US)
Agent: OCCHIUTI, Frank; (US)
Priority Data: 61/999,582 01.08.2014 US

Title (EN) FLUID HEATER
(FR) DISPOSITIF CHAUFFANT POUR FLUIDE

Abstract:
(EN)An apparatus for heating fluid includes a tank for holding fluid to be heated, and a fuel wafer in fluid communication with the fluid. The fuel wafer includes a fuel mixture including reagents and a catalyst, and an electrical resistor or other heat source in thermal communication with the fuel mixture and the catalyst.
https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016018851

This is Rossi’s patent assault on the World. This is an extension of the US patent of August 25, 2015, and it is an upgraded rewrite. This document has the potential of producing patents in over 100 countries around the World. This includes further patents in the US.

Patents are relevant for two reasons:

• the “story” that they contain, and
• the potential monopoly that they may generate.

This published application is relevant for both.

Addressing the description of the drawings and instructions for building a working system, I have compared the disclosure in the US patent to the disclosure in the published PCT application. For convenience, I will reproduce that comparison now in its entirety. Square brackets indicate deletion. Black upright text represents the original text in the US patent and italics represents the changes added to that original text to produce the published PCT application.

Rossi US patent amended in italics to produce Published PCT Application of 6Feb16

FLUID HEATER

CROSS – REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application claims the benefit of the August 1, 2014 priority date of U.S. Application No. 61/999,582, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE
This disclosure relates to heat transfer systems, and in particular to devices for transferring heat to a fluid.

BACKGROUND
Many heat transfer systems use hot fluids as a heat transfer medium. Such systems include a heat generator for generating heat, a heat transfer medium in thermal communication with the energy source, and a pump to move the heated medium to wherever the heat is needed. Because of its high heat capacity and its abundance, a common heat transfer fluid is water, both in its liquid and gas phase.

A variety of heat generators are in common use. For instance, in nuclear power plants, nuclear fission provides energy for heating water. There also exist solar water heaters that use solar energy. However, most heat transfer sources rely on an exothermal chemical reaction, and in particular, on combustion of some fuel.

SUMMARY
In one aspect, the invention features an apparatus for heating fluid, the apparatus including a tank for holding fluid to be heated, and a fuel wafer in fluid communication with the fluid, the fuel wafer including a fuel mixture including reagents and a catalyst, and a heat source, [for example an electrical resistor], or ignition source in thermal communication with the fuel mixture and the catalyst.

The heat source or ignition source can be an electrical resistor, or a heat source that relies on either heat from combustion, such as combustion of natural gas, or a heat source that relies on inductive heating.

Among the embodiments are those in which the fuel mixture includes lithium and lithium aluminum hydride, those in which the catalyst includes a group 10 element, such as nickel in powdered form, or in any combination thereof.

In other embodiments, the catalyst in powdered form, has been treated to enhance its porosity. For example, the catalyst can be nickel powder that has been treated to enhance porosity thereof. [In those embodiments that include an electrical resistor, the].The apparatus can also include an electrical energy source, such as a voltage source and/or current source in electrical communication with the [resistor.] heat source.

Among the other embodiments are those in which the fuel wafer includes a multi-layer structure having a layer of the fuel mixture in thermal communication with a layer containing the electrical resistor. heat source.

In yet other embodiments, the fuel wafer includes a central heating insert and a pair of fuel inserts disposed on either side of the heating insert.

A variety of tanks can be used. For example, in some embodiments, the tank includes a recess for receiving the fuel wafer therein. Among these are embodiments in which the tank further includes a door for sealing the recess. In yet other embodiments the tank includes a radiation shield.

Also included among the embodiments are those that further include a controller in communication with the voltage source. Among these are controllers that are configured to [cause] vary the voltage in response to temperature of the fluid to be heated.

In another aspect, the invention features an apparatus for heating a fluid, the apparatus including means for containing the fluid, and means for holding a fuel mixture containing a catalyst and a reagent, and means for initiating a reaction sequence mediated by the catalyst to cause an exothermic reaction.

Another aspect of the invention is a composition of matter for generating heat, the composition including a mixture of porosity-enhanced nickel powder, lithium powder, and lithium aluminum powder, and a. A heat source in thermal communication with the mixture can be used for initiating a nickel catalyzed exothermic reaction.

Yet another aspect features a for generating heat. The composition includes a fuel mixture and a catalyst. The catalyst comprises a group 10 element.

Embodiments include those in which the catalyst comprises nickel. Among these are embodiments in which the nickel is in the form of nickel powder and those in which the nickel powder has been treated to enhance porosity thereof.

Another aspect of the invention is a method of heating a fluid, the method including placing a mixture of nickel powder, lithium powder, and lithium aluminum hydride in thermal communication with the fluid; and heating the mixture, thereby initiating an exothermic reaction in the mixture.

These and other features of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying figures, in which:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG. 1 shows a heat transfer system having a heat source;

FIG. 2 is a cut-away view of the heat source in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a cross-section of the wafer for use in the heat source of FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 shows an exemplary resistor in the central layer of the wafer shown in FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 shows the heat source of FIG. 1 operating with a conventional furnace.

FIG. 6 shows plural heat sources like that in FIG. 2 connected in series.

FIG. 7 shows plural heat sources like that in FIG. 2 connected in parallel.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION
Referring to FIG. 1, a heat transfer system 10 includes a pipe 12 for transporting a heated fluid in a closed loop between a heat source 14 and a thermal load 16. In most cases, for example where there is hydraulic resistance to be overcome, a pump 18 propels the heated fluid. However, in some cases, such as where the heated fluid is steam, the fluid’s own pressure is sufficient to propel the fluid. A typical thermal load 16 includes radiators such as those commonly used for heating interior spaces.

As shown in FIG. 2, the heat source 14 is a tank 20 having a lead composite shield, an inlet 22 and an outlet 24 , both of which are connected to the pipe 12 . The interior of the tank 20 contains fluid to be heated. In many cases, the fluid is water. However, other fluids can be used. In addition, the fluid need not be a liquid fluid but can also be a gas, such as air.

The tank 20 further includes a door 26 that leads to a receptacle 28 protruding into the tank 20 . Radiating fins 30 protrude from walls of the receptacle 28 into the tank 20 . To maximize heat transfer, the receptacle 28 and the fins 30 are typically made of a material having high thermal conductivity, such as metal. A suitable metal is one not subject to corrosion, such as stainless steel.

The receptacle 28 holds a multi-layer wafer 32 for generating heat. A voltage source 33 is connected to the wafer 32 , and a controller 35 for controlling the voltage source 33 in response to temperature of fluid in the tank 12 as sensed by a sensor 37.

As shown in FIG. 3, the multilayer fuel wafer 32 includes a heating section 34 sandwiched between two fuel sections 36 , 38 . The heating section 34 features a central layer 40 made of an insulating material, such as mica, that supports a resistor 42. It should be noted that other heating sources can be used, including heat sources that rely on combustion of, for example, natural gas, as well as heat sources that rely on electrical induction. The use of gas thus avoids the need to have a source of electrical energy for initiating the reaction.

FIG. 4 shows an exemplary central layer 40 having holes 44 through which a resistive wire 42 has been wound. This resistive wire 42 is connected to the voltage source 33 . First and second insulating layers 46 , 48 , such as mica layers, encase the central layer 40 to provide electrical insulation from the adjacent fuel sections 36 , 38.

Each fuel section 36 , 38 features a pair of thermally conductive layers 50, 52, such as steel layers. Sandwiched between each pair of conductive layers 50, 52 is a fuel layer 54 that contains a fuel mixture having nickel, lithium, and lithium aluminum hydride [LiAlH.sub.4] LiAlH4 (“LAH”), all in powdered form. Preferably, the nickel has been treated to increase its porosity, for example by heating the nickel powder to for times and temperatures selected to superheat any water present in micro-cavities that are inherently in each particle of nickel powder. The resulting steam pressure causes explosions that create larger cavities, as well as additional smaller nickel particles.

The entire set of layers is welded together on all sides to form a sealed unit. The size of the wafer 32 is not important to its function. However, the wafer 32 is easier to handle if it is on the order of 1/3 inch thick and 12 inches on each side. The steel layers 50, 52 are typically 1 mm thick, and the mica layers 40, 48 , which are covered by a protective polymer coating, are on the order of 0.1 mm thick. However, other thicknesses can also be used.

In operation, a voltage is applied by the voltage source 33 to heat the resistor 42 . Heat from the resistor 42 is then transferred by conduction to the fuel layers 54 , where it initiates a sequence of reactions, the last of which is reversible. These reactions, which are catalyzed by the presence of the nickel powder, are: [<del datetime=”2016-05-14T22:30:44+00:00″>3LiAlH.sub.4.fwdarw.Li.sub.3AlH.sub.6+2Al+3H.sub.2 2Li.sub.3AlH.sub.6.fwdarw.6LiH+2Al+3H.sub.2 2LiH+2Al.fwdarw.2LiAl+H.sub.2]

3LiAlH4- Li3AlHs + 2A1 + 3H2
2Li3AlHs- 6LiH + 2A1 + 3H2
2LiH + 2A1 – 2LiAl + H2

Once the reaction sequence is initiated, the voltage source 33 can be turned off, as the reaction sequence is self-sustaining. However, the reaction rate may not be constant. Hence, it may be desirable to turn on the voltage source 33 at certain times to reinvigorate the reaction. To determine whether or not the voltage source 33 should be turned on, the temperature sensor 37 provides a signal to the controller 35 , which then determines whether or not to apply a voltage in response to the temperature signal. It has been found that after the reaction has generated approximately 6 kilowatt hours of energy, it is desirable to apply approximately 1 kilowatt hour of electrical energy to reinvigorate the reaction sequence.

Eventually, the efficiency of the wafer 32 will decrease to the point where it is uneconomical to continually reinvigorate the reaction sequence. At this point, the wafer 32 can simply be replaced. Typically, the wafer 32 will sustain approximately 180 days of continuous operation before replacement becomes desirable.

The powder in the fuel mixture consists largely of spherical particles having diameters in the nanometer to micrometer range, for example between 1 nanometer and 100 micrometers. Variations in the ratio of reactants and catalyst tend to govern reaction rate and are not critical. However, it has been found that a suitable mixture would include a starting mixture of 50% nickel, 20% lithium, and 30% LAH. Within this mixture, nickel acts as a catalyst for the reaction, and is not itself a reagent. While nickel is particularly useful because of its relative abundance, its function can also be carried out by other elements in column 10 of the periodic table, such as platinum or palladium.

FIGS. 5-7 show a variety of ways to connect the heat source 14 in FIG. 1.

In FIG. 5, the heat source 14 is placed downstream from a conventional furnace 56 . In this case, the controller 35 is optionally connected to control the conventional furnace. As a result, the conventional furnace 56 will remain off unless the output temperature of the heat source 14 falls below some threshold, at which point the furnace 56 will start. In this configuration, the conventional furnace 56 functions as a back-up unit.

In FIG. 6, first and second heat sources 58 , 60 like that described in FIGS. 1-4 are connected in series. This configuration provides a hotter output temperature than can be provided with only a single heat source 58 by itself. Additional heat sources can be added in series to further increase the temperature.

In FIG. 7, first and second heat sources 62 , 64 like that described in FIGS. 1-4 are connected in parallel. In this configuration, the output volume can be made greater than what could be provided by a single heat transfer unit by itself. Additional heat transfer units can be added in parallel to further increase volume.

In one embodiment, the reagents are placed in the reaction chamber at a pressure of 3-6 bar and a temperature of from 400 C to 600 C. An anode is placed at one side of the reactor and a cathode is placed at the other side of the reactor. This accelerates electrons between them to an extent sufficient to have very high energy, in excess of 100 KeV. Regulation of the electron energy can be carried out by regulating the electric field between the cathode and the anode.

Having described the invention, and a preferred embodiment thereof, what I claim as new and secured by letters patent is:

[Note: The following text is based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters]

CLAIMS
1. An apparatus for heating fluid, said apparatus comprising a tank for holding fluid to be heated and a fuel wafer in fluid communication with sai fluid, said fuel wafer including a fuel mixture including reagents and a catalyst, and an ignition source in thermal communication with said fuel mixture and said catalyst, wherein the ignition source is selected from the group consisting of an induction heater, an electrical resistor, a heater that relies on natural gas combustion, and a heater that relies on combustion of fuel.

2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said ignition source comprises an electrical resistor.
3. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said ignition source comprises an induction heater.
4. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said ignition source obtains heat from combustion of natural gas.
5. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said fuel mixture comprises lithium and lithium aluminum hydride.
6. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said catalyst comprises nickel powder.
7. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said nickel powder has been treated to enhance porosity thereof.
8. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said catalyst comprises a group 10 element.
9. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a voltage source in electrical communication with said ignition source.
10. The apparatus of claim 2, further comprising a voltage source in electrical communication with said ignition source.
11. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said fuel wafer comprises a multi -layer structure having a layer of said fuel mixture in thermal communication with a layer containing said ignition source.
12. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein said fuel wafer comprises a multi -layer structure having a layer of said fuel mixture in thermal communication with a layer containing said ignition source.
13. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said fuel wafer comprises a central heating insert and a pair of fuel inserts disposed on either side of said heating insert.
14. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said tank comprises a recess for receiving said fuel wafer therein.
15. The apparatus of claim 14, wherein said tank further comprises a door for sealing said recess.
16. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said tank comprises a radiation shield.
17. The apparatus of claim 9, further comprising a controller in communication with said voltage source.
18. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein said controller is configured to cause vary said voltage in response to temperature of said fluid to be heated.

19. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein said tank is configured for holding fluid to be heated, wherein said fuel wafer is configured to be in thermal communication with said fluid, wherein said resistor is configured to be coupled to a voltage source, wherein said apparatus further comprises a controller in communication with said voltage source, and a temperature sensor, wherein said fuel mixture comprises lithium, and lithium aluminum hydride, wherein said catalyst comprises a group 10 element, wherein said controller is configured to monitor a temperature from said temperature sensor, and, based at least in part on said temperature, to reinvigorate a reaction in said fuel mixture, wherein reinvigorating said reaction comprises varying a voltage of said voltage source.
20. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said catalyst comprises nickel powder.
21. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein said nickel powder has been treated to enhance porosity thereof.
22. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said fuel wafer comprises a multi -layer structure having a layer of said fuel mixture in thermal communication with a layer containing said electrical resistor.
23. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said fuel wafer comprises a central heating insert and a pair of fuel inserts disposed on either side of said heating insert.
24. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said tank comprises a recess for receiving said fuel wafer therein.
25. The apparatus of claim 24, wherein said tank further comprises a door for sealing said recess
26. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said tank comprises a radiation shield.
27. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said reaction in said fuel mixture is at least partially reversible.
28. The apparatus of claim 27, wherein said reaction comprises reacting lithium hydride with aluminum to yield hydrogen gas.

29. An apparatus for heating a fluid, said apparatus comprising means for containing said fluid, and means for holding a fuel mixture containing a catalyst and a reagent, and means for initiating a reaction sequence mediated by said catalyst to cause an exothermic reaction.
30. The apparatus of claim 29 , wherein said catalyst that comprises a group 10 element and a reagent comprises lithium and lithium aluminum hydride, said apparatus further comprising means for periodically reinvigorating said reaction sequence.

31. A composition of matter for generating heat, sai composition comprising a mixture of porosity-enhanced nickel powder, lithium powder, and lithium aluminum powder.

32. A composition of matter for generating heat, sai composition comprising a fuel mixture and a catalyst, said catalyst comprising a group 10 element.
33. The composition of claim 32, wherein said catalyst comprises nickel.
34. The composition of claim 32, wherein said catalyst comprises nickel powder.
35. The composition of claim 34, wherein said nickel powder has been treated to enhance porosity thereof.

36. A method of heating a fluid, said method comprising placing a mixture of nickel powder, lithium powder, and lithium aluminum hydride in thermal communication with said fluid; and heating said mixture, thereby initiating an exothermic reaction in said mixture.

Analysis of the PCT Published Application

The “Detailed Description” is the story portion of the patent disclosure, which should enable skilled workman to put the invention into use. The claims represent the proposed monopoly that the applicant aspires to obtain. At this stage in the patenting process, when we are addressing simply an application, these claims may be considered to be a “wish list”. The claims, however, are a useful guide to what the inventor thinks is important in the story.

The story has only modest changes over those contained in the disclosure of the US patent. The most significant change is the broadening of the means for heating the fuel to include not only an electrical resistor, but also other specific means:

The heat source or ignition source can be an electrical resistor, or a heat source that relies on either heat from combustion, such as combustion of natural gas, or a heat source that relies on inductive heating.”

This change shows up in the claims.

Here is Claim 1 of the issued US patent:

1. An apparatus for heating fluid, said apparatus comprising a tank, an electrical resistor, and a fuel wafer,
wherein said tank is configured for holding fluid to be heated,
wherein said fuel wafer is configured to be in thermal communication with said fluid,
wherein said fuel wafer includes a fuel mixture that includes reagents and a catalyst,
wherein said electrical resistor is in thermal communication with said fuel mixture and said catalyst,
wherein said resistor is configured to be coupled to a voltage source,
wherein said apparatus further comprises a controller in communication with said voltage source, and a temperature sensor,
wherein said fuel mixture comprises lithium, and lithium aluminum hydride,
wherein said catalyst comprises a group 10 element,
wherein said controller is configured to monitor a temperature from said temperature sensor, and, based at least in part on said temperature, to reinvigorate a reaction in said fuel mixture,
wherein reinvigorating said reaction comprises varying a voltage of said voltage source.

This claim has a “loophole” in the sense that if heating could be provided by mechanism other than an electrical resistor, then the claim would be avoided. This “loophole” has been closed in the revised disclosure and new proposed set of claims that are included in the PCT filing. In fact, this new set of claims represents a fresh “wish list” that has not been whittled down by a patent examiner before a patent office. Significantly, this PCT application can re-enter the United States at any time up to February 1, 2017. This will allow Rossi and Leonardo Corporation to get “another bite at the apple” before the US Patent Office.

On exiting the PCT in 2017 the owners of this application will be entitled to make National Entry patent filings in the over 100 countries who are members of the PCT. Accordingly, this application represents a possible World initiative by Rossi and Leonardo Corporation to control the heat generation process described in the above patent disclosure. In fact, National Entry applications already been made before the European Patent Office and in Australia, both on March 16, 2016.

Applications published by the PCT system are accompanied by a preliminary, nonbinding, Search Report. In this case, the Search Report identifies relevant Prior Art here:

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/docservicepdf_pct/id00000032223758/ISR/WO2016018851.pdf

The code is at the bottom. The symbol “X” means that a claim actually describes something that is already known. This, if true, will knock the claim out. The symbol “Y” means that the claim describes an obvious variant on something that is already known. This is an arguable ground for rejection that could prove troublesome. And the symbol “A” means that the document is closely related, but not relevant to examination.

The PCT Searcher/Examiner also provides a rather lengthy analysis here:

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/docservicepdf_pct/id00000032229115/WOSA/WO2016018851.pdf

This is a US Patent Office Searcher/Examiner providing his opinion. Although he is doing so on behalf of the WIPO as part of the PCT system, there is a good probability that this opinion is exceptionally lengthy because of the reluctance by the US Patent Office to endorse or allow many patent applications directed to “Cold Fusion”.

It is important to note that, although the greater part of the claims have been criticized in the above opinion, claims numbers 19 through 28 have not been challenged. There is a very good prospect, therefore, that these claims will eventually be present in patents that will be granted not only in the United States but elsewhere in the world. Based on a quick comparison, these claims, particularly claim 19 which dominates the others, appear to parallel the claims that have already been allowed in the US patent granted August 25, 2016.

David French is a retired patent attorney and the principal and CEO of Second Counsel Services. Second Counsel provides guidance for companies that wish to improve their management of Intellectual Property. For more information visit: www.Second-Counsel.com.

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The 20th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science occurs in Sendai, Japan this October. Sponsored by Clean Planet and Tohoku University, updates on experimental results and commercial successes and challenges will be presented.

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JCF-16 closes 2015 announcing ICCF-20 for 2016

The Japan Cold Fusion Research Society closed out 2015 with their 16th meeting held Dec. 11-12 in Kyoto.

The JCF-16 Program and Abstracts are archived here.

The last major conference of 2015, JCF-16 speaker Yasuhiro Iwamura announced the launch of the ICCF-20 website.

Toshiro Sengaku of Amateur LENR attended the meeting and posted photos from his @sengakut Twitter site.

The 20th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science will be held October 2-7, 2016 in Sendai Japan at Tohoku University, the home of the new laboratory where commercial and academic researchers are now collaborating on the production of excess heat and the transmutation of nuclear waste.

In addition to the scientific talks, host Professor Eiichi Yamaguchi opened the proceedings by sharing his memory of “the time he spent with Fleischmann and Pons in IMRA in Southern France in 1990’s” and “expressed his hope to bring all their efforts to fruition very soon,” said Hideki Yoshino of Clean Planet, Inc, a partner in the Tohoku project,

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2016 LENRIA Calendar

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